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Flashcards in Medical Problems Deck (24):
1

What does behaviour ultimately occur due to?

A consequence of internal appraisal of external stimuli

2

What four factors influence behavioural changes?

Changes in external stimuli
- perception of stimuli
- factors influencing appraisal
- ability to display behaviour

3

Give an example of medical conditions which can impact at each level of stimulus response and thus influence behaviour

Sensory perception - otitis, halucinations
threat appraisal - oestrogen
emotional response - concurrent pain
motor output - neuromuscular disease
ability to show behaviour - osteoarthritis

4

Give eg.s of conditions affecting the vision

Cataracts, PRA,glaucoma, keratoconjuntivitus sicca/corneal ulceration

5

Give conditions that affect the hearing

Otitis externa/media

6

Give conditions that affect olfaction

URTIs

7

Give conditions that affect taste

URTIs, oral disease eg. gingivitis

8

Give a condition that affects touch

Sensory neuropathy

9

Give a condition that affects balance

Vestibular disease

10

What are the three ares of the neural pathway for sensory perception that may be damaged?

The sensory organ
Sensory nerve pathways
Somatosensory cortex

11

What are the three forms of sensory neuropathy?

Allodynia - nonpainful stimuli feel painful
Paraesthesia - perception of touch when not present
Hyperaesthesia - increased sensitivity to touch

12

What are the different forms of nerve damage?

Generation of ectopic impulses
Attempted nerve regrowth
Immune mediators activating other local nerves
Spinal and central sensitisation

13

Which areas of the brain are involved in threat appraisal

Multiple areas eg retrieval of memory from hippocampus

14

Give a metabolic or endocrine disease that can affect behaviour

Hepatic Encephalopathy

15

How does hepatic encephalopathy influence the limbic system?

Direct effect eg. Ectopic focus
Effect on inhibitory pathways from prefrontal cortex

16

Give an example of a condition affecting the motor cortex

Ectopic focus - fixed action tics

17

Give an example of a condition caused by spinal damage

Loss of bladder tone

18

Give an example of a condition affecting motor nerves

Diabetic polyneuropathy

19

Give an example of a condition affecting the NMJ

myasthenia gravis

20

Which conditions will affect the ability/desire of an animal to display behaviours

Muscular problems eg.myopathies (infection/immune mediated/inherited)
Skeletal joint disease
Other pain

21

In what two ways may current pain affect behaviour?

Direct response to pain eg. Licking area or not using limb
Emotional component of pain affecting appraisal of other stimuli w

22

How may previous pain affect behaviours?

Learnt avoidance response
Eg. Aggression towards stroking area where painful abscess has been
Avoidance of other dogs due to osteoarthritic joint pain

23

How may idiopathic cystitis be diagnosed?

Rule out other causes
Double contrast cystotraphy/ultrasonography -> focal/diffuse thickening of bladder wall, irregularities in bladder mucosa
History of disease

24

What are the behavoiural signs of FIC?

Change in elimination posture to standing to alleviate pain (do not confuse with spraying)
Excessive grooming Of ventrocaudal abdomen and perineal region
Changes in demeanour and interaction with owners - anxiety or aggression
Changes in location of urination due to pain - learnt avoidance of specific context of urination due to the pain
Behavioural changes prior to elimination as predicting that it will be painful eg. Vocalisation, restlessness, v/^ owner contact