Flashcards in Medical Problems Deck (24):
What does behaviour ultimately occur due to?
A consequence of internal appraisal of external stimuli
What four factors influence behavioural changes?
Changes in external stimuli
- perception of stimuli
- factors influencing appraisal
- ability to display behaviour
Give an example of medical conditions which can impact at each level of stimulus response and thus influence behaviour
Sensory perception - otitis, halucinations
threat appraisal - oestrogen
emotional response - concurrent pain
motor output - neuromuscular disease
ability to show behaviour - osteoarthritis
Give eg.s of conditions affecting the vision
Cataracts, PRA,glaucoma, keratoconjuntivitus sicca/corneal ulceration
Give conditions that affect the hearing
Give conditions that affect olfaction
Give conditions that affect taste
URTIs, oral disease eg. gingivitis
Give a condition that affects touch
Give a condition that affects balance
What are the three ares of the neural pathway for sensory perception that may be damaged?
The sensory organ
Sensory nerve pathways
What are the three forms of sensory neuropathy?
Allodynia - nonpainful stimuli feel painful
Paraesthesia - perception of touch when not present
Hyperaesthesia - increased sensitivity to touch
What are the different forms of nerve damage?
Generation of ectopic impulses
Attempted nerve regrowth
Immune mediators activating other local nerves
Spinal and central sensitisation
Which areas of the brain are involved in threat appraisal
Multiple areas eg retrieval of memory from hippocampus
Give a metabolic or endocrine disease that can affect behaviour
How does hepatic encephalopathy influence the limbic system?
Direct effect eg. Ectopic focus
Effect on inhibitory pathways from prefrontal cortex
Give an example of a condition affecting the motor cortex
Ectopic focus - fixed action tics
Give an example of a condition caused by spinal damage
Loss of bladder tone
Give an example of a condition affecting motor nerves
Give an example of a condition affecting the NMJ
Which conditions will affect the ability/desire of an animal to display behaviours
Muscular problems eg.myopathies (infection/immune mediated/inherited)
Skeletal joint disease
In what two ways may current pain affect behaviour?
Direct response to pain eg. Licking area or not using limb
Emotional component of pain affecting appraisal of other stimuli w
How may previous pain affect behaviours?
Learnt avoidance response
Eg. Aggression towards stroking area where painful abscess has been
Avoidance of other dogs due to osteoarthritic joint pain
How may idiopathic cystitis be diagnosed?
Rule out other causes
Double contrast cystotraphy/ultrasonography -> focal/diffuse thickening of bladder wall, irregularities in bladder mucosa
History of disease