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1

When performing an X-ray with iodine containing contrast, such as intravenous urography, which drug is a contraindication?

Metformin

2

What is Metformin?

An antidiabetic drug and is first choice in overweight patients where strict dieting has failed.

3

Which two antibiotics should be used for a septic urinary stone?

1g IV ampicillin and IV gentamicin.

4

What class is ampicillin and what is it's mode of action?

Beta-lactam. It is able to penetrate both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It inhibits the action of transpeptidase, which bacteria need to make their cell wall, this causes cell lysis.

5

What class is gentamicin and what is its mechanism of action?

Aminoglycoside. It is a bactericidal antibiotic, it binds to the 30s subunit of the bacterial ribosome interupting protein synthesis.

6

Which two drugs does Jay Khastigir say are used in medical expulsion therapy for kidney stones?

Alpha blockers and Nifedipine.

7

Which drug is a synthetic replacement for vasopressin? And what does it do?

Desmopressin, encourages water retention by reducing urine output, useful for obstructed ureters.

8

What is Heparin and what is its use?

It is a glycosaminoglycan, and is used as an anti-coagulant. It binds to antithrombin III which activates AT and allows it to deactivate thrombin and other proteases involved in clotting.

9

What is Atropine?

It is a muscarinic antagonist, used to dilate the pupils.

10

What is Doxazosin and what is its function?

It is an Alpha-1 antagonist used to treat hypertension.

11

What is Salbutamol and what is its function?

It is a Beta-2 agonist used in the treatment of asthma.

12

What is Timolol and what is its use?

It is a non specific Beta antagonist and is used in the treatment of glaucoma.

13

What is Bisoprolol and what is its use?

Bisoprolol is a Beta-1 antagonist and is used used to treat hypertension and cardiac ischaemia.

14

What drug is used to dilate the pupil and what is its mechanism of action?

Atropine, muscarinic antagonist so decreases the input of the parasympathetic system.

15

What drug is an Alpha-1 antagonist that is used in the treatment of hypertension?

Doxazosin

16

Which drug is a Beta-2 agonist used in the treatment of asthma?

Salbutamol.

17

Which non-specific Beta-antagonist is used in the treatment of glaucoma?

Timolol

18

Which Beta-1 antagonist is used in the treatment of hypertension and cardiac ischaemia?

Bisoprolol

19

What is orlistat?

Orlistat is a weight loss drug, it inhibits the production of lipase, so fats are less absorbed.

20

What is the name of the weight-management drug that can cause malabsorption and steatarrhoea?

Orlistat.

21

What is syntocinon used for?

Synthetic Oxytocin - Used to create more regular and efficient contractions during labour.

22

Why does oxytocin need to be given I.V.?

It is destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract.

23

What is ergometrine?

It is used in obstetrics to facilitate the delivery of the placenta and to reduce bleeding, as such it is used to reduce post-partum haemorrhage.

24

What is Prostin?

It is the trade name for Prostaglandin E2, and is used to help soften the cervix.

25

What is syntometrine and what is its use?

• Oxytocin and Ergometrine
• Used in the active management of the third stage of labour, to help deliver the placenta and prevent post-partum haemorrhage.

26

What class is Benzylpenicillin, what are it's uses and mechanism of action?

• Known as penicillin G and is the gold standard penicillin.
• It is given parenterally.
• It is a penicillin antibiotic.
• Bacteriacidal, it disrupts the wall of the bacteria eventually causes lysis.

27

What class of antibiotics is Clarithromycin, what are it's uses and mechanism of action?

• It is a macrolide.
• It binds to 50s subunit of the bacterial ribosome and thus prevents them from producing proteins.
• It is predominantly used to treat respiratory tract infections and skin infections.

28

What class of antibiotics is Cefuroxime, what are it's uses and mechanism of action?

• Cephalosporin
• It is less susceptible to Beta-lactamase and so is used in the treatment of haemopholus influenza, gonorrhoea and Lyme disease.
• Work in a similar manner to other Beta-lactams by disrupting the cell wall by disrupting peptioglycan synthesis.

29

What is Coamoxiclav?

• It is a combination of amoxicillin (a beta-lactam) and clavulanic acid (a beta-lactamase inhibitor).
• This gives it a broader spectrum and has more resistance to beta-lactamase producing bacteria.
• Used broadly for UTIs, RTIs and skin infections.

30

What class of antibiotics is amoxicillin, what are it's uses and mechanism of action?

• It is a beta-lactam antibiotic in the aminopenicillin family.
• It is better absorbed after oral consumption than other beta-lactams.
• As with other beta-lactams it disrupts the bacterial cell wall and causing lysis.