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T7. Pharmacology > Drugs_antimicrobial > Flashcards

Flashcards in Drugs_antimicrobial Deck (54):
0

Penicillins

Antimicrobial_Inhibitors of Cell Wall Synthesis
Beta-Lactam antibiotics

1

Cephalosporins

Antimicrobial_Inhibitors of Cell Wall Synthesis
Beta-Lactam antibiotics

2

Clavulanic acid

Antimicrobial_Inhibitors of Cell Wall Synthesis
Beta-Lactamase inhibitor_open the ring

3

Benzathine Penicillin G

Antimicrobial_Natural Penicillin
Best choice for syphilis patients

4

Nafcillin

Antimicrobial_Penicillinase resistant penicillin
Reserved for penicillinase-producing Staph. aureus

5

Oxacillin

Antimicrobial_Penicillinase resistant penicillin
Reserved for penicillinase-producing Staph. aureus

6

Ampicillin

Antimicrobial_Extended spectrum penicillin (Penicillinase sensitive)
Drug of choice for Listeria monocytogens

7

Amoxicillin + Clavulanic acid

Antimicrobial_Penicillin combo
Clavulanic acid inhibits penicillinases

8

Piperacillin

Antimicrobial_Antipseudomonal penicillins
Effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Most potent of this group

9

Carbenicillin

Antimicrobial_Antipseudomonal penicillins
Effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

10

u/e Penicillins

hypersensitivity reaction; can be fatal

11

Cefazolin

1st generation Cephalosporins
Narrow spectrum, sensitive to beta-lactamase

12

Cefoxitin

2nd generation Cephalosporins
broader gran negative activity

13

Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)

3rd generation Cephalosporin
broad spectrum, resistant to most cephalosporinases
First line of drug tx Gonorrhea and meningitis in children because of its effectiveness against Hemophyllus influenza

14

Cefotaxime

3rd generation Cephalosporin
braod spectrum, resistant to most cephalosporinases

15

Cefapime

4th generation Cephalosporin

16

Vancomycin

drug of choice for tx MRSA, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

17

Daptomycin

skin infections, bacteremia cause by Staph. aureus

18

Bacitracin

Combo w polymyxin or neomycin for topical use

19

Gentamycin

Antimicrobial_Inhibitors of protein synthesis
Aminoglycoside that gain entry into the bacteria

20

Kanamycin

Antimicrobial_inhibitors of protein synthesis
Aminoglycosides gain entry into the bacteria

21

Neomycin

Antimicrobial_inhibitors of protein synthesis
Aminoglycosides
Used orally in hepatic coma to decrease the coliform flora, thus decreasing the production of ammonia.
Used topically for skin infections.

22

Tetracycline

Antimicrobial_inhibitors of protein synthesis
Rickettsiae, chlamydia, mycoplasma, borrelia infections (Lyme)

23

u/e Tetracycline

Staining of the teeth, retardation of bone growth, photosensitivity.
Not recommended for use in children or pregnant women and renal impairment.
Do not take with food or antacid

24

Doxycycline

Antimicrobial_inhibitors of protein synthesis
Tetracycline; safe in renally impaired patient

25

Erythromycin

Antimicrobial_inhibitor of protein synthesis
Macrolides
Pneumonia cuase by legionella and mycoplasma
Safe in pregnancy

26

Azithromycin

Antimicrobial_inhibitor of protein synthesis
Macrolides
Pneumonia caused by legionella and mycoplasma
Safe in pregnancy

27

u/e Aminoglycosides
ie. Gentamycin, Kanamycin, Neomycin

nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, neuromuscular toxicity
vertigo, loss of balance
small margin of safety

28

u/e Tetracyclines
ie. tetracycline, doxycycline

staining of teeth, retardation of bone growth, photosensitivity
children or pregnant women, and renal impairment

29

u/e Macrolides
ie. Erythromycin, Azithromycin

none listed
safe to use in pregnancy

30

u/e Chloramphenicol

fatal bone marrow depression and aplastic anemia
gray baby syndrome in infants with abdominal distention, vomiting, cyanosis, hypothermia, decreased respiration and vasomotor collapse

31

Clindamycin

Antimicrobial_inhibitor of protein synthesis
drug of choice for anaerobic GI infections

32

u/e Clindamycin

Pseudomembranous colitis because C. deficile is resistant to it

33

Linezolid

Antimicrobial_inhibitor of protein synthesis
MRSA, VRSA (gram-positive organisms), penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, etc.

34

Quinupristin/Dalfopristin

Antimicrobial_inhibitor of protein synthesis
tx of Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium

35

Silver sulfadiazine

Antimicrobial_folate antagonist
used topically on burn wounds

36

Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole (Cotrimoxazole)

Antimicrobial_folate
most commonly used drug in folate group
UTI, pneumocystitis carinii penumonia

37

Norfloxacin

Antimicrobial_fluroquinolones
common urogenital, respiratory, bone and joint infections, prostatitis, GI infections caused by gram negative organisms

38

Ciprofloxacin

Antimicrobial_fluroquinolones
good oral drug for gonorrhea
same as norfloxacin (urogenital, respiratory, bone and joint infections, prostatitis and GI infections caused by gram negative organisms

39

Levofloxacin

Antimicrobial_fluroquinolones
same as norfloxacin (urogenital, respiratory, bone and joint infections, prostatitis and GI infections caused by gram negative organisms

40

Metronidazole

Antimicrobial_other
drug of choice- STD, amebiasis (Dysentery), Giardiasis (Dysentery), antibiotic associated enterocolitis (Pseudomembranous colitis) caused by Clostrudium deficille

41

Isoniazid

TB drug
First-line drug- chemoprophylaxis
*needs to be taken with B6 to prevent complications like peripheral neuritis, numbness
Associated with hypatotoxicity and peripheral neuropathy

42

Rifampin

TB and Leprosy drug
First-line drug_potent inducer of the cytochrome P-450 enzymes
but u/e. hepatitis, color secretions red-orange, anxiety

43

Ethambutol

TB drug
First-line drug but u/e. optic neuritis (vision problems)

44

Dapsone

Leprosy drug
mainstay of the tx of leprosy

45

Thalidomide

Teratogenic drug
Most effective for tx. erythema nodosum leprosum
(inflammatory reaction state associated with leprosy)

46

Amphotericin B

Antifungal drug
serious yeast and fungal infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients

47

u/e Amphotericin B

nephrotoxicity

48

Fluconazole

Antifungal ORAL drug
chronic candidiasis infections of the GI tract and oral cavity

49

Ketoconazole

Antifungal ORAL drug
chronic candidiasis infections of the GI tract and oral cavity

50

Nystatin

Antifungal ORAL drug
Cutaneous mycoses
Oral candidiasis

51

Polymyxin B

Antifungal TOPICAL drug
cutaneous mycoses

52

Miconazole

Antifungal TOPICAL drug
cutaneous mycoses

53

Terbinafine

Antifungal TOPICAL drug
cutaneous mycoses
Superficial fungal infections; given PO