Drugs_cardiovascular system Flashcards Preview

T7. Pharmacology > Drugs_cardiovascular system > Flashcards

Flashcards in Drugs_cardiovascular system Deck (64):
0

Captopril (Capoten)

cardio drug
ACE (angiotension-converting enzyme) inhibitor
Potent vasoconstrictor
infrequently causes agranulocytosis or neutropenia

1

ACE inhibitor u/e
ie. Captopril (Capoten), Enalapril (Vasotec)

DRY, IRRITATING COUGH
h/a, dizziness, abdominal pain, confusion, renal failure, and impotence

can also be used for hypertention

2

Losartan (Cozaar)

cardio drug
Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist
It doesn't produce cough.
Also used in the tx of hypertension.

3

Minoxidil (Loniten)

cardio drug
Direct vasodilator
*also used tx of hypertension

4

u/e Minoxidil (Loniten)

Unwanted hair growth
Also topical tx of male pattern baldness

5

Chlorthiazide (Diuril)

Thiazide Diuretic
thick ASCENDING LOOP and EARLY DISTAL TUBULE
stop reabsorption of sodium and chloride

6

u/e Chlorthiazide (Diuril)

hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hyperglycemia

7

Furosemide (Lasix)

diuretic; loop diuretic
LOOP OF HENLE
pulmonary edema

8

Ethacrynic acid (Ethacrynate)

diuretic; loop diuretic
ASCENDING LOOP OF HENLE
pulmonary edema
Most ototoxic

9

u/e loop diuretics
ie. Furosemide (Lasix), Ethacrynic acid (Ethacrynate)

hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, ototoxicity

10

Spironolactone (Aldactone)

Potassium sparing diuretics
DISTAL TUBULE
combination w other diuretics to help maintaining the potassium balance

11

u/e Spironolactone (Aldactone)

Hyperkalemia

12

Digoxin (Lanoxin)

cardiac drug: Cardiac Glycosides
Na-K-ATPase inhibitor

13

u/e Digoxin (Lanoxin)

low therapeutic index, arrhythmias, anorexia, nausea, diarrhea, drowsiness, fatigue, visual disturbance

14

Dobutamine (Dobutrex)

Cardio drug
Sympathomimetics
Beta-1 agonist

15

Dopamine

cardio drug
Sympathomimetics
patients w imparied renal fx._may preserve renal blood flow, as a result, renal fx.

16

Nitroglycerine

Antianginal drug; organic nitrates
all forms of angina; acute coronary spasm
sublingually for rapid onset of action (2min)
transdermally for longer duration of action

17

u/e Antianginal drugs_organic nitrates

h/a, hypotention
*with sildenafil (viagra), hypotention

18

u/e Antianginal drugs_beta-blockers

do not discontinue abruptly to avoid rebound angina or hypotension.
NO patients with asthma, diabetes, severe bradycardia, peripheral vascular disease or COPD

19

Diltiazem (Cardizem)

Antianginal drugs_calcium channel blockers
Dilate arteries

20

Amlodipine (Norvasc)

antianginal drug: calcium channel blocker
dilate smooth muscle cells of the arteries

21

u/e Antianginal drugs_Calcium channel blockers
ie. Diltiasem, Amlodipine

headache, dizziness, hypotention etc.

22

Atenolol (Tenormin)

Antihypertensive drugs: beta blocker
Beta-1 antagonist that decrease HT rate and cardiac output

23

Metoprolol (Lopressor)

antihypertensive drug: beta blocker
beta-1 antagonist that decrease HT rate and cardiac output

24

u/e antihypertensive drugs_beta blockers
ie. atenolol, metoprolol

may not be effective in lowering BP in african american patients.
nonselective at high doses and can inhibit beta 2 receptors.

25

antihypertensive ACE inhibitors

increase rennin levels
useful in tx. diabetes with hypertension

26

antihypertensive_calcium channel blockers

good for african american hypertensives

27

Methyldopa (Aldomet)

antihypertensive_central acting adrenergic drug
reduce central sympathetic outflow with no direct effect on KDs.
useful for patients with renal disease and hypertensive pregnant women

28

Minoxidil (Loniten)

antihypertensive_direct vasodilator
directly relax arterioles
also marketed for topical tx of male pattern baldness

29

u/e Minoxidil (Loniten)

unwanted hair growth

30

Sodium nitroprusside

antihypertensive_crisis & emergency
given IV; prompt vasodilation
reduce BP in all patients regardless of the cause of hypertension

31

u/e Sodium nitroprusside

poisonous if given orally because of its hydrolysis to cyanide
ANTIDOTE: sodium thiosulfate

32

Procainamide (Pronestyl)

Antiarrhythmic drug
Class 1a Na channel blocker
atrial and ventricular arrhythmia (ALL purpose antiarrhythmics)

33

Lidocaine (Xylocaine)

Antiarrhythmic drug
Class 1b Na channel blocker
ventricular arrhythmia (vent. tachycardia, vent. fibrillation, vent. ectopy)

34

Propranolol (Inderal)

Antiarrhythmic drug
Class 2 Beta-adrenoceptor blocker
slow down SA and AV node conduction, increase the refractory period.
most commonly used to treat arrhythmia patients.

35

Amiodarone

Antiarrhythmic drug
Class 3 K channel blocker
prolong repolorization
effective in tx and prevention of vent. fibrillation and vent. tachycardia

36

Digoxin (Lanoxin)

Antiarrhythmic drug
Class 5 unclassified
control vent. rate in atrial fibrillation or flutter

37

Adenosine (Adenocard)

Antiarrhythmic drug
Class 5 Unclassified
drug of choice for tx. paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia

38

Aspirin

Antiplatelet drug
inhibit thromboxane A2 synthesis in platelets, thus prolongs bleeding time.
reduces the risk of MI and stroke

39

Clopidegrol (Plavix)

Antiplatelet drug
inhibit the binding of ADP to its receptor on platelets and inhibit the activation of GP IIb/IIIa receptors required for platelets to bind to fibrinogen thus it blocks platelet aggregation

40

Abciximab (Reopro)

Antiplatelet drug
Glycoprotein IIB/IIIA receptor antagonist
blocking the binding of fibrinogen to the flycoprotein IIB/IIIA receptor on the surface of the platelet

41

Heparin

Anticoagulant

42

Protamine

Heparin antidote

43

Enoxaparin (Lovenox)

Anticoagulant drug

44

u/e Anticoagulants
ie. Haparin, Enoxaparin

Hemorrhage

45

Warferin (Coumadin)

Oral Anticoagulant
interfere vit K dependent clotting factor (II, VII, IX, X) synthesis
*should avoid cranberry juice

46

Warferin antidote

Vitamin K

47

Argatroban

Anticoagulant_Thrombin inhibitor

48

Streptokinase

Thrombolytic drug
not much used

49

Tissue Plasminogen activator (t-PA)

Thrombolytic drug

50

Aminocaproic acid

Drugs used to treat bleeding
inhibits plasminogen activation

51

Vitamin K

Drug used to treat bleeding
Can overcome the anticoagulant effects of oral agents

52

Erythropoietin

Tx anemia; end stage renal failure
Stimulates erythropoiesis

53

Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12)

Tx anemia; megaloblastic anemia

54

Epoetin alpha, darbepoetin alpha

Tx anemia; anemia cause by end-stage renal disease

55

Simvastatin (Zocor)

Antihyperlipidemic drug
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor
First choice for hypercholesterolemia
decrease cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, TG
increase HDL

56

Atrovastatin (Lipitor)

Antihyperlipidemic drug
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor
First choice for hypercholesterolemia
decrease cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, TG
increase HDL
*most potent

57

Rosuvastatin (Crestor)

Antihyperlipidemic drug
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor
First choice for hypercholesterolemia
decrease cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, TG
increase HDL
*most potent

58

u/e simvastatin, atrovastatin, rosuvastatin

LV fx abnormalities, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis (disintegration of muscles)
*NO grapefruit juice

59

Gemfibrozil (lopid)

Antihyperlipidemic drug
Fibrate
inhibit VLDL synthesis, reduce TG level

60

Niacin (Nicobid)

Antihyperlipidemic drug
Strongly inhibit lipolysis in adipose tissue
decrease cholesterol, TG, LDL, VLDL
increase HDL

61

u/e Niacin (Nicobid)

flush and pruritus

62

Cholestyramine (Questran)

Antihyperlipidemic drug
Bile acid sequestrants
decrease cholesterol and LDL
increase TG, HDL

63

Ezetimibe (Zetia)

Antihyperlipidemic drug
Cholesterol absorption inhibitor
decrease LDL, TG
increase HDL