E1. Drugs that act on the blood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in E1. Drugs that act on the blood Deck (54):
1

How do you treat microcytic (hypochromic) anemia?

• Iron preparations
– Parenteral (iron carbohydrate complexes) – Oral (e.g., ferrous chloride, ferrous
phosphate, ferrous sulfate)
• Copper preparations
– Copper sulfate orally
– Copper glycinate SC or IM

2

What drug is used to treat anemia due to chronic renal failure or bone marrow suppression?

Erythropoietin, EPO(Epogen) other options are iron or anabolic steroids.

3

What is an issue associated with EPO?

It may increase blood pressure

4

What can treat macrocytic (megaloblastic) anemia and ruminants?

Cobalt

5

What are the four ways to treat mediated hemolytic anemia?

Supportive treatment
Blood transfusion
Immunosuppressive
Intravenous gamma globulin

6

What is supportive treatment for immune mediated hemolytic anemia (INHALE)?

Fluid therapy, acid-base balance, organ perfusion.

7

What are the four types of immunosuppressive used to treat immune mediated hemolytic anemia?
Slide nine

• Glucocorticoids (prednisone, prednisolone)
• Cytotoxic drugs (azathioprine, cyclophosphamide)
• Danazol
• Cyclosporin A

8

Which of the following can cause anemia if deficient in?
A. Copper
B. Vitamin K1
C. Iron
D. Both A and C
E. None of the above

D. Both A and C

9

Which is more irritating organic or inorganic iron?

Inorganic iron

10

What is a good granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G – CSF)?
A. Filgrastim
B. Sirgrastim
C. Epinephrine
D. All of the above
E. None of the above


A. Filgrastim

11

What is a good granulocyte – macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM – CSF)?
A. Filgrastim
B. Sirgrastim
C. Epinephrine
D. All of the above
E. None of the above

B. Sirgrastim

12

What makes anticancer drugs the most dangerous class of drugs?explain.

Patient can die from adverse affects rather than the cancer itself. It kills off rapidly growing cells for example cells found in your gastrointestinal tract, or hair follicles.

13

How are Filgrastim and sargrastim given?

They are given by injection.

14

What is adverse effect of your CSF drugs?

Bone pain because the bone marrow is the site of action.

15

What are local hemostatics used for and give an example of a local hemostatic.

They are used to control. Example is epinephrine.

16

How does epinephrine work to control bleeding?

It works as a vasoconstrictor, and acts on your alpha1 receptors.

17

Where are your alpha one receptors located?

They can be found in the skin, mucous membranes, subcutaneous blood vessels and visceral blood vessels.

18

List the different types of local hemostatics (4).

Vasoconstrictors, astringents, surgical, and physiological.

19

List the types of astringents and which is more astringent?

Tannic acid and ferric chloride. Ferric chloride is more astringent then tannic acid.

20

List the types of surgical hemostatics. (3)

Oxidized cellulose, gelatin sponge, collagen

21

List the types of physiological hemostatics.

Thromboplastin, thrombin, fibrinogen, fibrin foam.

22

Can you use local hemostatics (styptics) systemically? Why?

No, because if used systemically it will cause an emboli.

23

What are the five categories of systemic hemostatics?

Clotting factors
Vitamin K
Protamine sulfate
Aminocaproic acid
Desmopressin (DDAVP)

24

Name two different typed of clotting factors.

Blood transfusion
Fresh frozen plasma (FFP)

25

An animal is bleeding from warfarin what drug should you get it?
A. K1(Phytonadine)
B. K2(menaquine)
C.K3 (menadione)
D. Any of the above work
E. Two of the above can work

A. K1(Phytonadine)

26

Why does warfarin prevent clotting?

It contains sulfonimides.

27

What vitamin K should you never use in a horse?why?
A.K1
B. Menadione
C. K3
D. Phytonadine
E. Two of the above

E. Two of the above (B&C) because

28

How is vitamin K best given to animals maintenance therapy?
A. Oral
B. IM
C. SQ
D. IV
E.more than one of the above


A. Oral
If using a needle make sure it's a small one, otherwise bleeding will occur. IV is more likely to cause a hypersensitivity.

29

What vitamin K be used to treat?
A. Warfarin poisoning
B. Vitamin K deficiency
C. Spoiled Sweetclover (melilotus spp.).
D. Two of the above
E. All of the above

E. All of the above

30

How long will take for vitamin K to work on warfarin poisoning?

About a day due to existing quite elation factors.

31

What is the specific antidote for heparin?

Protamine sulfate

32

How does protamine sulfate work to treat heparin?

Is given slowly through IV, and it is a basic drug that binds heparin (acid) to form a salt.*do not overdose because it has an anticoagulant effect. It is also known as a chemical antagonist.

33

What is the mechanism of action of aminocaproic acid?

Inhibits the conversion of plasminogen to Plasmin.

34

What is the drug of choice for hyperfibrinolysis/thrombolytic agent toxicity?

Aminocaproic acid

35

You have a German Shepherd with degenerative myelopathy what drug should you use?
A. Mannitol
B. Cobalt
C. Aminocaproic acid
D. Furosemide

C. Aminocaproic acid

36

You have a dog with Von Willinrand disease, what drug should you use to treat it?
A. DDAVP
B. Aspirin
C. Warfarin
D.Desmopressin
E. Two of the above

E. Two of the above (A&D)

37

How long is desmopressin's duration of action?

One hour

38

What are the two drugs that prevent thrombus formation?

Heparin
Warfarin (Coumarin)

39

How does heparin work?

It activates anti-thrombin three (8T3) which results in the inhibition of thrombin along with factors 9a, 10a,11a and 12a in the liver.

40

How is heparin given/taken?

It is given by IV or subcutaneous. It is not absorbed or early and should not be done intramuscularly.

41

What happens once heparin is in the body? (Action time/duration/Metabolized)

As a fast onset of action, short duration, and is metabolized in the liver.

42

True or false, make statement true if it's false. Warfarin is better than heparin to use as an anti-coagulant on a pregnant animal.

False. Heparin better than warfarin it comes to pregnant animals.

43

Which of these drugs is used to treat acute thromboembolism?
A. Warfarin
B. Epinephrine
C. Coumarin
D. Heparin
E. None of the above

D. Heparin

44

What are some negatives to heparin?

Narrow safety margin and can cause hypersensitivity.

45

How does warfarin prevent blood clotting?

Inhibits vitamin K epoxide reductase, then it's activation of the precursors of factors 2, 7, 9, 10.

46

How is warfarin given?

Orally

47

Warfarin binds extensively (__%) to albumin. It has a long duration of action (2–5 days), and is metabolized in the liver.

99

48

What is negative with warfarin?

Is able to cross the placenta and can be excreted and milk.

49

What is warfarin's clinical use?

Prevents thromboembolic disease, and can be used as rodenticide.

50

List the drugs that can increase warfarin's response.(7)

Phenylbutazone, Salicylates, sulfonamides, broad – spectrum antibiotics, anabolic steroids.

51

What drugs reduce warfarin's response?

Enzyme inducers (ex. phenobarbital)

52

List the drugs are thrombolytic agents. (4)

Streptokinase, urokinase, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA/alteplase), anistreplase.

53

How does aspirin inhibit platelet aggregation?

It Irreversibly inhibits the cox enzyme, and at Low levels will inhibit the synthesis of thromboxane a2(TXA2).

54

Which drug is an anti-thrombin drug?
A. Lepirudin
B. Clopidogerel
C. All of the above
D. None of the above

C. All of the above