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Flashcards in E2. Antibiotics Deck (34):
1

Slides 4 – 6 are definitions and background information.

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2

Look at slide 7/7

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3

What are the mechanisms of action for antibiotics? (4)

– inhibition of cell wall synthesis
– disruption of cell membranes
– inhibition of protein synthesis
– inhibition of DNA synthesis/function

4

What drugs are responsible for inhibition of cell wall synthesis? (3)
What type of drugs are these in an antagonistic relationship with?(8/7)

Penicillins, cephalosporins, vancomycin.

Antagonism with protein synthesis inhibiting drugs.

5

What are the 4 drugs that disrupt the cell membrane? (9/7)

Polymyxin B, noviobiocin, nystatin, amphotericin B

6

What are the 5 drugs that inhibit protein synthesis?(10/7)

Aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, macrolides, lincomycin, chloramphenicol

7

What are the 5 drugs that inhibit DNA synthesis/function? (11/7)

Potentiated sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, nitrofurans, nitromidazoles, griseofulvin

8

How is chemical structure useful clinically?(slide 12/7)

Useful clinically when considering new drugs or resistance to drugs.

9

What are the 3 drugs that damage renal tubular epithelial cells?

Aminoglycosides, polymyxins, tetracyclines

10

What drug does damage to the collecting ducts and more distal tubular structures?

Sulfonamides (crystalluria)

11

What 3 drugs are hepatotoxic?

12

An animal came into your clinic and tested positive for "bad" G+ bacteria only, what drug(s) is the BEST option to use? (slide 5/7)
A. Tetrecycline
B. Aminoglycosides
C. Macrolides
D. Penicillin G
E. More than 1 answer

E. More than 1 answer (C & D are both G+ Only=narrow spectrum)
* lincosamides are also G+ only/ narrow spectrum

**A. is broad spect. & B. is narrow G-.

13

An animal came into your clinic and tested positive for "bad" G- bacteria only, what drug(s) is the BEST option to use? (slide 5/7)
A. Tetrecycline
B. Aminoglycosides
C. Potnetiated sulfonamides
D. Fluoroquinolones
E. More than 1 answer

B. Aminoglycosides

14

Which of the following are considered to broad spectrum drug(s)?
A. Tetrecycline
B. Aminoglycosides
C. Potnetiated sulfonamides
D. Fluoroquinolones
E. More than 1 answer

E. More than 1 answer (A, C, & D)

15

What drug(s) can cause Neuromuscular blockade?
A. Tetrecycline
B. Aminoglycosides
C. Polymyxins
D. Fluoroquinolones
E. More than 1 answer

E. More than 1 answer (A, B, & C)
*Especially in combination with anesthetics

16

What drug(s) can cause ototoxicity (Deafness and/or vestibulochlear injury)?
A. Tetrecycline
B. Aminoglycosides
C. Polymyxins
D. Fluoroquinolones
E. More than 1 answer

B. Aminoglycosides

17

What drug(s) can cause CNS excitement?
A. Potnetiated sulfonamides
B. Macrolides
C. Polymyxins
D. Penicillin G procaine
E. More than 1 answer

D. Penicillin G procaine (mostly from the procaine)

18

What drug(s) can cause GI upset?(Options below)
What are the signs you might see w/ this upset?(No options, 4)
A. Ampicillin
B. Chloramphenicol
C. Clindamycin
D. Lincomycin
E. More than 1 answer

E. More than 1 answer (A, C, & D0

Signs: Anorexia, Diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis, dysbiosis

19

What drug(s) can cause Bone marrow toxicity?(Options below)
What are the signs you might see w/ this upset?(No options, 2)
A. Sulfonamides
B. Chloramphenicol
C. Trimthoprim
D. Penicillin G procaine
E. More than 1 answer

E. More than 1 answer (A, B, C)

20

What drug(s) can cause hypersensitivity reactions?
A. Ampicillin
B. Polymyxins
C. Penicillin G procaine
D. Sulfonamides
E. More than 1 answer

C. Penicillin G procaine

21

What can Fluoroquinolones cause in Dogs and cat? (15/7)

Cartilage damage in growing dogs.
Retinal damage in cats

22

Look at slide 17-18/7

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23

Define resistance.

A bacterium is not inhibited or killed by concentrations of an antibiotic that would normally do so at concentrations that can be reached in the patient.

24

What are the 3 mechanisms that can cause resistance? (Things the body/bacteria can control, not involving stopping of Tx early) (slide 21-22/7 for examples of each)

What do these causes effect? (Single drug, all drugs, or both)

- Drug doesn't reach target site.
- Drug is inactivated
- Target is changed.

These mech. can effect a single antibiotic and/or the class of antibiotics.

25

Define Acquired resistance.

A bacterial strain that is normally susceptible
becomes resistant

26

What are the 2 different type of acquired drug resistance?

- Chromosomal mutation (mutation of own DNA)
- Transferable drug resistance

27

How does Chromosomal mutation (mutation of own DNA) happen?
What 3 drugs is this important for?

28

What is Transferable drug resistance?
How can it happen? (3)

29

How does Conjugation work?
What bacteria do this?

30

Because of Transduction (bacteriophages), what drugs is Staph aureus resistant to? (2) (slide 27/7 more info in pics)

Pencillins and tetracyclines.

31

What is transformation? What bacteria do this, and where do we believe this happens?(slide 28/7 pic info)

- Picking up of "naked" DNA.
- G+ bacteria, possibly in the GIT

32

What are the factors of intrinsic resistance to drugs?(2)(slide 29/7 more info)

33

Define biofilm. (slide 30/7 look at for more info)

An aggregate of microorganisms in which cells that are frequently embedded within a self- produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance (called ‘slime’) adhere to each other and/or to a surface.

34

Look at slide 31-33/7 Types of drug resistance that we caused

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