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Flashcards in E2. Antiparasitic Deck (92):
1

What are the three types of paraciticides?

– Ectoparasiticides
– Endoparasiticides
– Endectocides

2

What are the two types of Endoparasiticides?

• Antiprotozoals
• Anthelmintics (Antitrematodals, Anticestodals, Antinematodals)

3

How do anti-parasitic drugs work? (5 modes of action: 3 inhibit, 2 other)

• Inhibition of neuromuscular system
• Inhibition of neuronal system
• Inhibition of energy metabolism
• Damaging membrane integrity
• Interfering with reproduction

4

Which of the following is a competitive neuromuscular blocker?
A. Piperazine
B. Levamisole
C. Pyrantel
D. Morantel
E. Dichlorvos

A. Piperazine

5

Which of the following is a depolarizing neuromuscular blocker?
A. Piperazine
B. Levamisole
C. Pyrantel
D. Morantel
E. Dichlorvos

B. Levamisole
C. Pyrantel
D. Morantel

6

Which of the following is a Cholinesterase inhibitor?
A. Piperazine
B. Levamisole
C. Pyrantel
D. Morantel
E. Dichlorvos

E. Dichlorvos

7

What drug is responsible for activating the G protein coupled receptor called latrophilin?
A. benzimidazoles
B. antitrematodals
C. Dichlorvos
D. emodepside
E. piperazin

D. emodepside

8

Look at slide 8-11/4

.

9

How does benzimidazoles work? (what do they bind)

Binds tubulin of the parasite microtubules disrupting cell division.

10

What drugs are used to give energy metabolism in parasites? (2)

Benzimidazoles(albendazole) and antitrematodals (clorsulon)

11

What drugs are used to damage the parasites membrane integrity? (2)

Praziquantel and epsiprantel

12

Which of the following is false about inhibition of reproduction?
A. Antiprotozoals work by inhibiting growth
B. Benzimidazoles are Ovicidal and larvicidal
C. All of the above is correct
D. All of the above false

C. All of the above is correct

13

Which of these are not anticoccidials?
A. Amprolium
B. Decoquinate
C. Praziquantel
D. Monensin (Ionophores)
E. All of the above are anticoccidials

C. Praziquantel

14

Name the drugs that are anticoccidials? (9)

• Amprolium
• Decoquinate
• Ionophores (Monensin, lasalocid, salinomycin, narasin)
• Sulfonamides (Sulfadimethoxine, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfamethazine)
• Others (Robenidine, nicarbazin, arsanilic acid, tetracyclines)

15

How does Amprolium work as a anticoccidial? (Inhibits?, Use?)
What animal is it approved in?

It inhibits thiamine transport, and is used to prevent coccidiosis.
It is approved for use in laying birds.

16

How does Decoquinate working as a anticoccidial? (Inhibits, use?)

– A 4‐hydroxyquinoline derivative that inhibits mitochondrial
electron transport in coccidia.
– Used to prevent coccidiosis

17

What is ionophores use? (2)
What are the names of the drugs that are ionophores? (4)

Prevent coccidiosis and growth promoting feed additive.
Monensin, lasalocid, salinomycin, narasin

18

What is the use of sulfonamides as an anticoccidial?
What are the names of these drugs? (3)

They are used to prevent and treat coccidiosis.
Sulfadimethoxine, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfamethazine

19

What are the five drugs used to treat Giardiasis?

• Metronidazole
• Albendazole
• Fenbendazole
• Quinacrine
• Furazolidone

20

A dog has come to your clinic and after some testing you diagnosed it with Giardia. What drug do you treat it with? (DOC)
A. Metronidazole
B. Benzimidazoles
C. Albendazole
D. Quinacrine
E. Furazolidone

A. Metronidazole

21

A dog has come to your clinic and after some testing you diagnosed it with Giardia. After treatment with Metronidazole failed, what drug should you use next? (drug of last resort)
A. Metronidazole
B. Benzimidazoles
C. Albendazole
D. Quinacrine
E. More than one of the above

E. More than one of the above (Albendazole is a Benzimidazole)

22

A PREGNANT dog has come to your clinic and after some testing you diagnosed it with Giardia. What drug do you treat it with?
A. Metronidazole
B. Fenbendazole
C. Albendazole
D. Furazolidone
E. None of the above

D. Furazolidone
*the other three options are contraindicated in a pregnant animal

23

What is the drug of choice to treat amebiasis?
A. Metronidazole
B. Fenbendazole
C. Albendazole
D. Furazolidone
E. None of the above

A. Metronidazole

24

What is the drug you use to treat amebiasis in a pregnant animal?
A. Metronidazole
B. Fenbendazole
C. Albendazole
D. Furazolidone
E. None of the above

D. Furazolidone

25

What are the two drugs that can be used to treat amebiasis?

Metronidazole and Furazolidone

26

What type of animals is Metronidazole not approved to treat amebiasis in? (2)

Food animals and the pregnant animals

27

What are the two drugs used to treat BALANTIDIASIS?

• Metronidazole
• Tetracycline

28

What are the three drugs used to treat trichomoniasis?

Metronidazole, Clioquinol, Carnidazole

29

You have a horse suffering from diarrhea due to trichomonas, bacteria and yeast, what drug should you use to treat this?
A. Metronidazole
B. Clioquinol
C. Carnidazole
D. Any of the above
E. None of the above

B. Clioquinol

30

You have a bird that has come down with pigeon canker, what drug should you use to treat it? A. Metronidazole
B. Clioquinol
C. Carnidazole
D. Any of the above
E. None of the above

C. Carnidazole

31

A dog has come down with trichomoniasis, what drug should you use to treat it?
A. Metronidazole
B. Clioquinol
C. Carnidazole
D. Any of the above
E. None of the above

A. Metronidazole

32

Can you use Carnidazole to treat a pigeon with pigeon canker if you plan on eating it?

No

33

What drugs can be used to treat toxoplasmosis? (6)

Clindamycin, Sulfonamides (Sulfadiazine, sulfadoxine, sulfamethazine), Sulfonamide‐pyrimethamine, Sulfonamide‐trimethoprim

34

What is the drug of choice to treat toxoplasmosis in dogs and cats?

Clindamycin

35

What does Clindamycin inhibit?

Inhibits protein synthesis via the 50s ribosomal subunit

36

An animal has been diagnosed with Histomonas meleagridis, what drug should you use to treat it?
A. Organic arsenicals
B. Carbarsone
C. Roxarsone
D. Nitarsone
E. All of the above

E. All of the above
*B, C, and D are all examples of A.

37

What drug is used to treat babesiosis in horses?

imidocarb

38

What drug is used to treat anaplasmosis?

Oxytetracycline

39

What drug it is most effective in treating sarcocystis neurona in horses? (look at slide 30/4 for more drugs)

Nitazoxanide

40

Look at slide 31/4

.

41

What are the three drugs used to treat cryptosporidiosis?

Paromomycine, Azithromycin, Nitazoxanide

42

A cow has come down with Fasciola hepatica (trematode not disease bear with me), what drug the do you use to treat it?
A. Clorsulon
B. Albendazole
C. Praziquantel
D. Make it into hamburger
E. None of the above

A. Clorsulon

43

Look at slide 36/4

.

44

Name the four drugs that are anticestodals, and list the animals they are approved for use in?

• Dichlorophene(dogs and cats)
• Praziquantel (dogs & cats, and horses)
• Epsiprantel (dogs and cats)
• Fenbendazole (dogs)

45

A dog has come in to your clinic with Taenia, Dipyllidium & Echinococcus, what drug should you use?
A. Dichlorophene
B. Praziquantel
C. Epsiprantel
D. Fenbendazole
E. All of the above can be used

B. Praziquantel
*technically all can be used, but only for Taenia.

46

What drug is used against roundworms, hookworms, whipworms and Taenia pisiformis?

Fenbendazole

47

What drug(s) can be used to treat Taenia and Dipyllidium?
A. Dichlorophene
B. Praziquantel
C. Epsiprantel
D. Fenbendazole
E. More than one of the above

E. More than one of the above (A, B, & C)
*D is only for dogs

48

What drug can be used to treat Taenia in a horse?
A. Dichlorophene
B. Praziquantel
C. Epsiprantel
D. Fenbendazole
E. More than one of the above

B. Praziquantel (only drug approved in horse for this and Dipyllidium/Echinococcus)

49

What are the three classes of antinematodals?

• Endectocides
• Broad‐spectrum
• Narrow‐spectrum

50

What are the two subclasses that fall under the Endectocides?

• Avermectins
• Milbemycins

51

What are the four drugs that fall under the subclass Avermectins of Endectocides?

– Ivermectin
– Eprinomectin
– Doramectin
– Selamectin

52

What are the two drugs that fall under the subclass Milbemycins of Endectocides?

– Milbemycin oxime
– Moxidectin

53

How is ivermectin given to cattle? (2)

By injection or pour on

54

Which the following is not true about ivermectin administration?
A. It can be given by injection and orally to horses, dogs, cats, swine and sheep.
B. It can be given by injection or pour on to cattle.
C. Swine can be injected with ivermectin.
D. All of the above is true
E. All of the above is false o

A. It can be given by injection and orally to horses, dogs, cats, swine and sheep.
*it can be given only orally in horses, dogs, cats, and sheep. Swine can also given ivermectin orally or by injection.

55

What effect does ivermectin have in horses? What parasites does it work on? (3)

It has an anti parasitic activity.
Works on:
– Gastrointestinal roundworms
– Lungworms (Dictyocaulus arnfieldi)
– Bots (Gasterophilus spp.)

56

What parasites does ivermectin work on in cattle? (6)

– Gastrointestinal roundworms
– Lungworms (Dictyocaulus viviparus)
– Cattle grubs (Hypoderma bovis, H. lineatum)
– Suckling lice
–Mites or scabies (Psoroptes ovis,
Sarcoptes scabiei var. bovis)
–The pour‐on preparation also acts against horn flies (Haematobia irritans) and biting lice

57

What is ivermectin used to treat in swine? (4)

–Gastrointestinal roundworms
–Lungworms (Metastrongylus spp.)
– Lice
–Mange mites (Sarcoptes scabiei var.suis)

58

What is ivermectin used to treat in sheep? (3)

–Gastrointestinal roundworms including *Haemonchus contortus*
–Lungworms (Dictyocaulus filaria)
–Nasal bots (Oestrus ovis)

59

What is ivermectin used to treat in dogs and cats? (Give parasite, and be specific about the stage involved)

It is used to kill heartworm D. immitus. It works on the larvae (tissue stage) not the adults.

60

True or false: You can give the dose prescribed for a dog to a cat.

False. All animals need different concentrations, trying to give something made for another animal can/will kill the animal you are giving it to.

61

How does ivermectin work? (Binds to, induces/inhibits)

It binds to the GABA and/or glutamate gated chloride channels (not found in mammalian host). It induces paralysis of the nematode and inhibition of egg production.

62

Which of the following drugs which you give to LACTATING beef and dairy cattle?
A. Ivermectin
B. Eprinomectin
C. Doramectin
D. Selamectine
E. Any of the above can be given

B. Eprinomectin

63

How is Eprinomectin given?

Pour on (topically)

64

How is Doramectin given to cattle? (2)

IM or SC

65

What is Selamectine used to treat in dogs and cats? (4)

–Prevents heartworm disease
(Dirofilaria immitis)
–Ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) in dogs
and cats
–Sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) and ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) in dogs
–Treats intestinal hookworm (Ancylostoma tubaeforme) and roundworm (Toxocara cati) in cats

66

What animal is Milbemycin oxime approved to treat?
What does it treat? (4)

– Prevention of heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) for 30 days
– Hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum)
– Roundworm (Toxocara caninum)
– Whipworm (Trichuris vulpis)

67

What animals can Moxidectin treat? (3)
How can it be given in these animals, and what does it treat?

Cattle: pour on (topical)for internal and external parasite control.
Horses: orally Broad-spectrum antinematodal activity
Dogs: orally prevention of heartworm

68

What are the four classes for broad-spectrum antihelmentics?

Benzimidazoles, imidathiazole's, tetrahydropyrimidines, and organophosphates.
* Emodepside is also a broad spectrum drug.

69

List the four drugs that are benzimidazoles and what animals they are used in.

• Albendazole (cattle)
• Fenbendazole (dogs, horses, swine, cattle including lactating dairy cattle)
• Oxfendazole (horses, beef cattle)
• Oxibendazole (horses, dogs)

70

What is albendazole used to treat in cattle? (4)

– Gastrointestinal roundworms
– Lungworms (Dictyocaulus viviparus)
– Adult liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica)
– Tapeworms (Moniezia spp.)

71

What are the contraindications for albendazole?

Contraindicated during the first 45 days of pregnancy. Should not be used in female dairy cattle breeding age.

72

What does fenbendazole treat in dogs? (4)

• Ascarids (Toxocara canis, T. leonina)
• Hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala)
• Whipworms (Trichuris vulpis)
• Tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis)

73

What is the use of fenbendazole in horses and cattle? ( 1 and 2)

Horses:
• Broad‐spectrum antinematodal
Cattle:
• Gastrointestinal roundworms and lungworms
• The tapeworm Moniezia benedini

74

What are the two drugs classified as imidathiazoles?

• Febantel
• Levamisole

75

What is a huge difference between Febantel & Levamisole? (Slide 84-85/4)

The safety margin (Febantel has a wide safety margin where Levamisole has a narrow safety margin). Another difference is the animals that each are approved for use in.

76

What animals is Febantel approved for use in? (3)

Horses, dogs and cats.
*activity is similar to benzimidazoles

77

What animals is Levamisole approved for use in?
What does it treat?
How is it given?

Why does it have such a narrow safety margin?

• Approved in cattle, sheep and swine
• Acts against gastrointestinal roundworms and lungworms
• Administered orally, subcutneously and topically

The receptors that it works on in the parasite are the exact same in the host. So essentially it could effect of the host.

78

What are the two drugs that are in the class tetrahydropyrimidines?

• Pyrantel
• Morantel

79

How do tetrahydropyrimidines work?

They are depolarizing neuromuscular blockers

80

What animals is Pyrantel approved in, and what does it treat?(4)

• Dogs and cats
– Large roundworms (ascarids) – Hookworms
• Horses
– Pinworms
– Roundworms
– Strongyles
– At large doses, it is also effective against tapeworm (Anoplocephala perfoliata)
• Swine
– Large roundworms – Nodular worms

81

What is special about Morantel? (2)

• Approved in cattle including lactating dairy cattle (with no milk withdrawal) against gastrointestinal nematodes

*• Approved in goats against gastrointestinal nematodes (one of a few drugs approved for goats)*

82

What animals is organophosphate's approved for use in, and what do they treat? (3)

– Swine
• GI nematodes
– dogs
• Roundworms, hookworms and whipworms
– Cats
• Roundworms and hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Uncinaria stenocephala)

83

What is Emodepside used to treat? (slide 93/4)

Used to treat round worms (Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina), hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeformae) and cestodes (Dipyllidium caninum, Taenia taeniaeformis, Echinococcus multilocularis)

84

How does Emodepside work?(MOA)

Release of PAF 1 and PAF 2 from LAT 1 and LAT 2 receptors to paralyze the nematode.

85

What animals is piperazine approved in and what does it treat? (6)

• Chickens and turkeys
–Large roundworms
• swine
– Nodular worms
• Horses
– Large roundworms, strongyles and pinworms
• Dogs and cats
– Large roundworms

86

Howe does piperazine work? (MOA)

It's a competitive neuromuscular blocker.

87

What drug is used to treat the adult stage of heart worm disease in dogs?

Melarsomine

88

How is Melarsomine given?

Deep IM

89

True or false: you can give Melarsomine to cats. (98/4)

False, you can only give to dogs.D

90

What drugs can you give to treat the microfilarial stage in dogs? (Slide 100/4)

Ivermectin and Milbemycin

91

You have a dog that you have treated with ivermectin 2 weeks after adulticidal therapy, now it has circulatory collapse what should you treat it with? What did you do wrong with the treatment?

You treat the collapse with glucocorticoids and fluid therapy.
What you did wrong was treating at two weeks, you treat at 3 to 4 weeks after adulticidal therapy.

92

What are the four drugs that can be used as heart worm prevention?

–Ivermectin
–Milbemycin oxime
–Moxidectin
–Selamectin