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Flashcards in E2. Reproduction Deck (61):
1

Look at the slides 1 – 6/3

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2

What are the three types of gonadotropin's mentioned, and how do they need to be given?

– Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (a.k.a. LH= luteinizing hormone)
– FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) or eCG (equine chorionic gonadotropin) (both are also known as PMSG= pregnant mare serum gonadotropin)

They need to be given by injection

3

Which of the following is not a clinical use of hCG (LH)?
A. Follicular cysts in cattle and bitches (dog)
B. Induce ovulation in mare and cat.
C. Super ovulation in cattle
D. cryptorchidism in dogs
E. Stimulate testosterone secretion as a diagnosis for the presence of a testicle

C. Super ovulation in cattle

4

Which one of the following is not a clinical use of eCG (FSH)?
A. Stimulate follicular growth in anestrous animals
B. FSH/hCG used to induce estrus in prepuberal gilts
C. Only eCG is used with PGF2 alpha for the induction of superovulation in cattle
D. All of the above are clinical uses
E. None of the above our clinical uses

C. Only eCG is used with PGF2 alpha for the induction of superovulation in cattle
*FSH or eCG can be used

5

What is the clinical use of GnRH in large animals? (3)

–Follicular cyst in cattle
– boosting luteal formation
– Deslorelin Acetate (ovuplant) is used to induce ovulation in the mare

6

Which of the following is not true about of GnRH in small animals?
A. Follicular cysts and bitches
B. Increases libido in female dogs and cats
C. Is also known as gonadorelin
D. To diagnose LH and testosterone deficiency in small animals
E. All of the above her clinical uses

B. Increases libido in female dogs and cats
*increases libido in MALE dogs and cats

7

True or false:
Androgens and anabolic steroids are schedule II drugs.

False, androgens and anabolic steroids are schedule III drugs.

8

Which of the below are not androgen drugs?
A. Testosterone esters
B. Boldenone
C. Trenbolone
D. Mibolerone
E. All are androgen drugs

B. Boldenone
*anabolic steroid

9

Where the clinical uses of androgen drugs for large animals?

Testosterone is used in cows to produce a "teaser" to identify cows in estrus.

10

What androgen drugs can be used as growth promoters as implants in feedlot heifers and steers? (2)

Testosterone – estradiol and trenbolone

11

What are the uses of the androgen drugs and small animals? (3)

– treatment of androgen deficiency (alopecia) in the castrated dog
– suppression of estrus in dogs
– pseudopregnancy in the bitch

12

Which of these androgen drugs are used to suppress estrus in dogs and treat pseudopregnancy in the bitch?
A. Testosterone
B. Trenbolone
C. Mibolerone
D. Two of the above
E. All of the above

D. Two of the above
(A and C)

13

What two drugs are considered to be anabolic steroids? Name animals they are proved to be used in.

– Stanozolol: dogs, cats and horses
– Boldenone: horses

14

What are the clinical uses of anabolic steroids? (5)

– Improve athletic performance and horses
– cachexia (wasting) and debilitating diseases
– during tissue repair
– nonspecific adjunctive therapy in the treatment of anemia and small animals
– appetite stimulants

15

True or false:
anabolic steroids can be used as an appetite stimulant because they work on the satiety center.

False, they are an appetite stimulant because growth indirectly stimulates appetite.

16

Which of the following is not an adverse affect of anabolic steroids?
A. Infertility
B. Clitorial enlargement and small animals
C. Aggression
D. Sodium and water retention
E. Feminization

E. Feminization
*It causes masculinization.

17

True or false:
Anabolic steroids are hepatotoxic.

True (is an adverse effect)

18

What are the three drug groups that are classified as estrogens?

– Estradiol esters
– DES (synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen)
– Zeranol (mycotoxin)

19

Which of the following are not estradiol esters?
A. cypionate
B. propionate
C. benzoate
D. valerate
E. oxytocin

E. oxytocin

20

Where the clinical uses for estrogens in large animals?(3)

– Estradiol is used combined with progesterone or testosterone for growth promotion in cattle.
– Zeranol is used for growth promotion in cattle and sheep.
– Estradiol valerate (luteolytic) is used combined with a progestin (norgestomet) for estrous synchronization in cattle.

21

What a clinical uses and small animals for estrogens? (3) (slide 41/3)

– Urinary incontinence, dermatitis and vaginitis in the ovarectomized bitch and queen
– Induction of estrus (without ovulation) in the bitch
– Antagonists to androgens in prostate hypertrophy
and tumors, and anal adenoma

*not recommended for mismating (get rid of pregnancy) (for antinidatory activity) in dogs and cats.

22

What are some adverse effects of estrogens?(6)

–Ovarian suppression followed by follicular cyst.
– Vaginal or uterine prolapse or abortion.
– Aplastic anemia and leukopenia (bone marrow suppression) in small animals.
– Bone fractures
– feminization in the male
– pyometra is used in misstating in small animals

23

Name of the drugs that are progestins (progestagens). (8) (slide 50-51/3)

– Megestrol acetate (approved in bitches)
– Hydroxyprogesterone caproate (approved in cats)
– Altrenogest (approved in mares)
– Norgestomet implants and norgestomet‐estradiol valerate injection, Syncro Mate B, (approved in beef cattle and nonlactating heifers)
– Progesterone
– Melengestrol acetate (approved in cattle)
– Medroxyprogesterone acetate
– Progesterone CIDR (cattle Insert Drug Release)

24

Where the clinical uses of progestins in large animals? (3 general)
*subcategories look at slides 59 – 60/3

– suppression of estrus and synchronization of estrus cycle
– growth promoters in cattle
– premature labor in mares

25

What drug is used to to cause premature labor in mares?

Altrenogest
*also responsible for suppression of estrus and synchronization of estrous cycle in mares

26

Which of the following is used to promote growth in cattle?
A. Altrenogest
B. Progesterone – estradiol benzoate
C. Melengesterol
D. Progesterone CIDR
E. More than one of the above

E. More than one of the above
(B and C)

27

What are the clinical uses of progestins in small animals? (2)

– Contraception and suppression of estrus
– Behavioralproblems and urination in male cats.

28

What progestin drug is used for contraception and suppression of estrus in bitches and queens?
A. Megestrol acetate
B. Melengesterol acetate
C. Medroxyprogesterone acetate
D. More than one of the above

A. Megestrol acetate

29

What progestin drugs can be used to treat behavioral problems and urination male Cats? (2)

–Hydroxyprogesterone caproate
– Medroxyprogesterone acetate

30

Which of the following is NOT an adverse effect of progestins?
A. Pyometra , cystic endometrial hyperplasia, CEH (the most serious reproductive problem in the bitch)
B. Mammary gland enlargement and tumors
C. Increased appetite
D. All of the above are diverse effects

D. All of the above are diverse effects
(slide 64 –66/3)

31

Which of the following is not true about prostaglandin F2 alpha?
A. The uterus plays a huge role in luteal progression in the queen
B. Decreases in serum progesterone (mainly due to luteolysis)
C. Stimulating uterine contraction secondary to luteolysis
D. all of the above are true
E. None of the above are true

A. The uterus plays a huge role in luteal progression in the queen
*the uterus appears to play no role in medial regression in the bitch.

32

How does prostaglandin F2 alpha work? (Activates/inhibits and increases) (slide 68/3)

– Activates protein kinase C and inhibits steroid synthesis
– Increased intracellular free calcium mediates cell death and regression of the CL.

33

Look at slide 69/3

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34

What are the three drugs that are synthetic analogs of PGF2 alpha and what animal are they approved in use for?

• Cloprostenol (approved in cattle)
• Fenprostalene (approved in cattle)
• Fluprostenol (approved in mares)

35

What is the drug of choice for expulsion of a mummified fetus?I

Prostaglandin F2 alpha

36

True or false: Prostaglandin F2 alpha along with antibiotics can treat pyometra.

True. (look at slide 72-73/3 or more clinical uses of prostaglandin F2 alpha in large animals)

37

Can prostaglandin F2 alpha be used to treat silent estrus and pyometra in cattle (due to persistent CL)?

Yes

38

True or false: prostaglandin F2 alpha has been approved for use in dogs and cats.

False, it has not been approved in dogs or cats and therefore any use of it is considered to be extra label.
*look at slide 74/3 for clinical uses in small animal

39

What are some adverse effect of prostaglandin F2 alpha in small animals?
Horses?
(Look at slide 75/3 for more effects)

Small animals: salvation, anxiety, ataxia and vomiting.

Horses: sweating and colic

40

What are the clinical uses of uterine stimulants? (3)

Antinidatory, Abortifacient, ecbolic (oxytocic)

41

What drugs can be used as uterine stimulants? (6)

– Estrogens
– Oxytocin
– PGF2

42

What are the uses of oxytocin? (5)

– Induction of parturition
– Induction of milk let‐down
– Expulsion of the placenta
– Expulsion of eggs in birds and reptiles
– Decrease post‐partum bleeding

43

Name the two drugs that are considered to be prolactin inhibitors (ergoline derivatives).

– Bromocriptine
– Cabergoline

44

How do prolactin inhibitors (ergoline derivatives) work? (MoA)

Act as dopamine agonists and inhibit prolactin causing luteolysis (prolactin is luteotropic during the second‐half of diestrus and the second‐half of pregnancy in the bitch)

45

What are the clinical uses of prolactin inhibitors (ergoline derivatives)? (2)

– Mismating in the bitch and queen (inhibition of prolactin results in decrease in progesterone and abortion)
– Pseudopregnancy in the bitch or queen

46

Between Bromocriptine and Cabergoline, which would you rather use as a prolactin inhibitors (ergoline derivatives) and why?

Cabergoline is more effective and has fewer side effects than bromocriptine

47

What are some adverse effects of prolactin inhibitors (ergoline derivatives)? (4)

– Vomiting
– anorexia
– depression
– behavioral changes

48

Look at the slides 84 – 90/3 pseudo-pregnancy in the bitch.

.

49

What is the treatment of pseudopregnancy in the bitch?

No treatment, sedatives (not dopamine antagonist), water deprivation or furosemide (diuretic)
*more on slides 89, 90/3.

50

What drug should use to induce abortion in cows during the first 150 days of gestation?

PGF2 alpha or its analogues

51

What should be used to induce abortion in cows between by and 8 months of the gestation?
Last month of pregnancy?

– a combination of PGF2 alpha and dexamethasone.

– Either dexamethasone or PGF2 alpha

52

Which of the below can be used to induce parturition in cows, mares, sow, and small animals?
A. Glucocorticoid
B. PGF2 alpha
C. Oxytocin
D. Combination of the above

Cow: A (DOC), B is second option
Mare: C (DES or estradiol cypionate can be used in closed cervix 12‐24 hr before oxytocin)
Sow: B followed by C (DOC if possible to do), B if unable to do first option.
Small animals: C

53

What are the five drugs used in expulsion of the placenta and treatment of pyometra?

– Oxytocin
– estrogens
– PGF2 alpha
– ergonovin
– bromocriptine

54

What are tocolytics?
How do they work?

Drugs which inhibit uterine contraction.
Inhibit oxytocin induced myometrial contractions

55

What drugs are considered to be tocolytics?(3)

56

What is agalactica, and how do you treat it?

Is the inability to produce milk.

Dopamine antagonists such as phenothiazines, metoclopramide, and domperidone stimulate prolactin secretion and milk production

57

How do you treat benign prostate hypertrophy and dogs? (5) (slide 102/3)

– Castration
– Megesterol acetate (not more than 32 days)
• Inhibits gonadotropins (feedback)
– Finasteride
• Inhibits the enzyme 5

58

Look at slide 105, 107-108/3

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59

What are the clinical uses of somatotropin (growth hormone, GH) in large animals? (2) (slide 110/3)

– Increase milk production
– enhancing group

60

What are the clinical uses of somatotropin (growth hormone, GH) in small animals? (2)

– pituitary dwarfism in dogs
– GH responsive dermatosis

61

What are the adverse effects of somatotropin (growth hormone, GH) in large and small animals?

Large animals: may increase the incidence of mastitis
small animals: diabetes mellitus, hypersensitivity reactions