Flashcards in Ear pathology Deck (81):
What should you look for when examining the outer ear?
Changes in ear drum
Swelling over mastoid
What can affect the outer ear?
What is otitis externa?
Inflammation of the skin of the ear canal
What can cause otitis externa?
What is disease of the middle ear called?
What can cause otitis media?
What bacteria can cause otitis media?
What two forms of otitis media are there?
What are some of the symptoms of acute otitis media?
Reduced TM movement and altered colour
How do you treat acute otitis media?
Watch and wait:
60% resolve in 1/12
90% resolve in 3/12
When should you refer acute otitis media?
if lasts longer than 3/12
What three conditions does chronic otitis media cover?
Chronic otitis media with effusion
What can cause perforation of the TM?
How do you treat perforation of the TM?
Keep infection free
Surgery if not
What is the common name for Chronic otitis media with effusion?
What is glue ear?
Otitis media with effusion
What can cause Otitis media with effusion?
How does Otitis media with effusion present?
Abnormal cone of light
Sucked in TM so can see incus
How do you treat Otitis media with effusion?
What is cholesteatoma?
Chronic otitis media with perforated tympanic membrane.
What causes cholesteatoma?
Abnormal stratified epithelium in middle ear with high turnover producing lots of keratin
What is cholesteatoma associated with?
What are some symptoms of cholesteatoma?
What are some of the complications of cholesteatoma?
Erodes surrounding bone
Damage facial nerve
Venous sinus thrombosis
How do you treat cholesteatoma?
What pathology can affect the vestibulocochlear nerve?
What is a Vestibular Schwannoma?
Benign tumour of Schwann cells of vestibular part of CNVIII. Arises in IAM
What does a Vestibular Schwannoma look like?
What are some symptoms of a Vestibular Schwannoma?
How do you diagnose Vestibular Schwannoma?
What are two of the major symptoms of inner ear disease?
What categories of things can cause dizziness?
What things can cause central dizziness?
What things can cause visual dizziness?
What things can cause CVD dizziness?
What things can cause Proprioceptive dizziness?
What things can cause vestibular dizziness?
Benign Postural Paroxysmal Vertigo
What is the most common cause of vestibular dizziness?
Benign Postural Paroxysmal Vertigo
What is the pathology of Benign Postural Paroxysmal Vertigo?
Otolith migrates from utricle into semicircular canal- normally posterior
What can cause Benign Postural Paroxysmal Vertigo?
What are the symptoms of Benign Postural Paroxysmal Vertigo?
Vertigo on looking up, bending forwards, moving in bed, getting up etc
How do you diagnose Benign Postural Paroxysmal Vertigo?
Dix Hallpike test:
Sit then lie down
Turn head quickly
What is a differential for Benign Postural Paroxysmal Vertigo?
How does Vertebrobasilar insufficiency differ from Benign Postural Paroxysmal Vertigo?
Vertebrobasilar insufficiency has:
How can you treat Benign Postural Paroxysmal Vertigo?
How long does Benign Postural Paroxysmal Vertigo last for?
What is a good diagnostic question for Benign Postural Paroxysmal Vertigo?
'Do you get dizzy when turning over in bed?'
What causes Meniere's?
What is the pathology of Meniere's?
Mixing of peri and endo lymph
What are the symptoms of Meniere's?
hearing loss with episodes
Feeling of pressure in ear
hearing loss in one ear
How do you treat Meniere's?
Avoid: NaCL, beta histamines, Caffeine, Alcohol, stress
How long does Meniere's last?
What is a good diagnostic question for Meniere's?
'Does one ear feel full/ do you get hearing loss during episodes?'
What is vestibular neuronitis?
Inflammation of superior vestibular nerve
What causes vestibular neuronitis?
What are some of the symptoms of vestibular neuronitis?
Vertigo for days
No tinnitus or hearing loss
How do you treat vestibular neuronitis?
Bed for 3 days, off work for 3 weeks, off balance for 3 months.
How longs does vestibular neuritis last for?
What is a good question to ask in vestibular neuronitis?
'Was it severe, lasting days with N&V?'
What is labrynthitis?
Inflammation of the labyrinths
What can cause labrynthitis?
What are some of the symptoms of labrynthitis?
Vertigo for days
Tinnitus and hearing loss
What associated symptoms is it important to ask about with dizziness?
Lightheadedness, Syncope, palpitations
Speech and swallowing problems
What is a good question to ask to diagnose migraine associated dizziness?
'Do you get light sensitive?'
What is otalgia?
What is hemotympanum?
Blood in the inner ear
What two types of hearing loss are there?
Describe conductive hearing loss
Cochlea works but can't get sound to it
Describe sensory hearing loss
Cochlea doesn't work
What is a major cause of conductive hearing loss?
What is otosclerosis?
Fixation of the stapes footplate
What are some symptoms of otosclerosis?
Gradual hearing loss
Rapid progression in pregnancy
Is otosclerosis more common in men or women?
How do you treat otosclerosis?
Name three causes of sensory hearing loss
What is presbycusis?
Olg age hearing loss
What is a symptom of presbycusis?
Loss of high frequency
What is a symptom of noise induced hearing loss?
Dip at 4kH
What drugs can cause hearing loss?
What is myringitis?
Inflammation of the ear drum