Nose, throat and tonsil pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nose, throat and tonsil pathology Deck (60):
1

What should you not use to diagnosis rhino or sinusitis?

XR

2

What two broad categories of rhino/sinusitis are there?

Infective
Non-infective

3

What can cause infective rhino/sinusitis?

Common cold mainly

4

What are some symptoms of infective rhino/sinusitis?

Facial pain
Discharge
Nasal blockage

5

How do you treat infective rhino/sinusitis?

Decongestants
Analgesics
Antibiotics- if chronic

6

What two categories of non-infective rhino/sinusitis are there?

Allergic
Non-allergic

7

What can cause non-allergic rhino/sinusitis?

Polyps
Vasomotor rhinitis

8

What kind of reaction is allergic rhino/sinusitis?

IgE mediated Type 1 HS

9

How do you treat allergic rhino/sinusitis?

Avoidance
Antihistamines
Topical steroids
Combination

10

What are nasal polyps?

Swellings of the nasal mucosa

11

What can cause nasal polyps?

Infection
Allergic
Asthma
Aspirin
Nickel exposure
CF

12

How do you treat nasal polyps?

oral steroids
topical steroids
Surgery

13

What is Granulomatosis with polyangiitis commonly called and where does it affect?

Wenger's
Nose

14

What is Granulomatosis with polyangiitis?

Inflammation of the blood vessels in the nose

15

What can cause Granulomatosis with polyangiitis?

Autoimmune

16

What are some symptoms of Granulomatosis with polyangiitis?

Necrosis
Small vessel vasculitis
Pulmonary and renal disease
Septal perforation
ANCA +ive

17

What benign tumours can affect the nose?

Squamous papilloma
Angiofibromas
Schneiderian papillomas

18

What causes Schneiderian papillomas?

HPV
Smoking
Solvent abuse
welding
>50yo

19

What is a symptom of Schneiderian papillomas?

Nasal blockage

20

What malignant tumour can affect the nose?

SCC

21

What 4 'unique' cancers can affect the nose?

Lymphoma
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Primary adenocarcinoma
Neuroblastoma

22

What can cause nasopharyngeal carcinoma?

EBV

23

Where are laryngeal polyps/nodules found?

Throat

24

Differentiate a laryngeal polyp from a nodule

Polyp- unilateral
Nodule- bilateral

25

What can cause laryngeal polyps/nodules?

Vocal abuse
Infection
Smoking
Hypothyroidism

26

What is an ulcer in the throat?

Benign response to injury

27

Where are throat ulcers usually found?

Posterior vocal cord

28

What can cause throat ulcers?

Chronic throat clearing
Voice abuse
GORD
Intubation

29

What can cause papillomas in the throat?

HPV 6 and 11

30

What cancer is common in the throat?

SCC

31

What can cause SCC in the throat?

HPV
Smoking
Alcohol

32

What two forms of paraganglioma are there?

Chormaffin positive
Non-Chromaffin

33

What are some causes of airway obstruction?

Inflammation- Allergic and infective
Foreign bodies
Compression
Trauma
Neurological
neoplastic
Burn

34

What makes children susceptible to choking?

Big heads
Small nostrils
Obligate nasal breathers
Large tongues
Small soft larynx
Weak neck muscles
Narrow subglottis

35

What things can affect the tonsils?

Tonsillitis (acute and chronic)
Obstructive hyperplasia
Malignancy
Tonsil crypt debris / tonsiliths
Otitis media with effusion
Glandular fever/infectious mononucleosis

36

What can cause acute tonsillitis?

Viral (major)
Bacterial

37

What viruses cause acute tonsillitis?

EBV
Rhinovirus
Influenza

38

Give some differentials for acute tonsillitis?

URTI
Infectious mononucleosis
Peritonsular abscess
Candida infection
malignancy
Diptheria
Scarlet fever

39

What are some symptoms of viral acute tonsillitis?

Malaise
Fever
Sore throat
Lymphadenopathy
Lasts 3-4 days

40

What are some symptoms of bacterial acute tonsillitis?

Systemic upset
Fever
Odynophagia
Halitosis
Lymphadenopathy
Lasts longer than a week

41

How do you treat acute tonsillitis?

Support
AB- penicillin or clarithromycin
Surgery

42

What is a complication of acute tonsillitis?

Peritonsillar abscess

43

What are some symptoms of a peritonsillar abscess?

Unilateral throat pain
3-7 days after tonsilitis
Medial displacement of uvula
Concavity of palate

44

What is the major cause of chronic tonsillitis?

Bacteria

45

What bacteria can cause chronic tonsillitis?

Strep pyogenes
S. Aureus
H. Influenza
Strep pneumonia

46

What are some symptoms of chronic tonsillitis?

Chronic sore throat
Bad breath
Tonsilloliths
Peritonsillar erythema
Lymphadenopathy

47

What two areas can cause obstructive hyperplasia?

Adenoids
Tonsilis

48

Give some symptoms of adenoid obstructive hyperplasia?

Obligate mouth breathing
Hyponasal voice
Snoring
AOM/OME

49

Give some symptoms of tonsil obstructive hyperplasia?

Snoring
Muffled voice
Dysphagia

50

What is the common name for infectious mononucleosis

Glandular fever

51

What is glandular fever?

Infectious mononucleosis

52

What causes Infectious mononucleosis?

EBV

53

What are some symptoms of Infectious mononucleosis?

Gross tonsillar enlargement with exudate
Lymphadenopathy
Hepatosplenomegaly
Low CRP

54

how do you treat Infectious mononucleosis?

Symptomatic treatment
Antibiotics
Steroids
No ampicillin!!!

55

What must you not use in Infectious mononucleosis?

AMPICILLIN!!!

56

What pathology can you get in the salivary glands?

Sialolithiasis

57

What is Sialolithiasis?

Stones in salivary glands

58

What virus can infect the salivary glands?

Paramyxovirus- causes mumps

59

What benign tumours can affect the salivary glands?

Pleomorphic adenomas
Warthins
Oncocytoma
Monomorphic

60

What malignant tumours can affect the salivary glands?

Mucoepidermoid
Adenoid cyst
Acinci cell carcinoma
SSC