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Flashcards in ENT Trauma and plastics Deck (31):
1

What kind of trauma can happen to the ear?

Pinna hematoma
Ear laceration
Temporal bone fracture
Sudden sensory hearing loss

2

How do you treat pinna hematoma?

Aspirate
Incision and drainage
Pressure drainage

3

How do you treat ear lacerations?

Debridement
Closure
LA
AB

4

What should you look for when investigating temporal bone fractures?

Hearing loss
Facial palsy
Vertigo
CSF leakage
Associated injuries
Battles sign
Condition of TM and ear canal

5

What classifications of temporal bone fracture are there?

Longitudinal
Transverse
Otic capsule involved or not

6

Are longitudinal or transverse temporal fractures more common?

Longitudinal

7

What causes longitudinal temporal fractures?

Lateral blows

8

Give some symptoms of a longitudinal temporal fracture?

Bleeding from EOM
Haemotympanum (conductive deafness)
Ossicular chain disruption (conductive deafness)
Facial palsy

9

Give some symptoms of a transverse temporal fracture?

Facial nerve palsy (50%) & Vertigo
Sensorineural hearing loss due to damage to 8th cranial nerve
Can cross the internal acoustic meatus causing damage to auditory and facial nerves

10

What should you do for someone with sudden sensory hearing loss?

Weber test
Steroids

11

What is the Weber test?

Tuning fork in front of ear and bone behind

12

What foreign object should you remove immediately from the ear?

Watch battery

13

What should you look for in nasal trauma?

Bruising, Swelling
Tenderness
Deviation
Epistaxis
Infraorbital sensation
CNs
Septal haematoma

14

How should you manage nasal fractures?

Review in 3-7 days once swelling has gone down
Manipulate <3w

15

What is epistaxis?

Nose bleed

16

What first aid can be administered for epistaxis?

External Pressure to Nose
Ice
Cautery
Nasal Packing

17

What hospital management can be used for epistaxis?

Remove clot: suction, nose blowing
Anterior Rhinoscopy
Cautery / pack
Cauterise vessel: silver nitrate / diathermy
300 rigid nasendoscopy

18

What generally causes CSF leak?

Fracture to the cribriform plate

19

How many zones are there in the neck trauma classification?

3

20

What is included in neck trauma zone 1?

Trachea
Oesophagus
Thoracic duct
Thyroid
Vessels
Brachiocephalic
Subclavean
Common carotid
SC

21

What is included in neck trauma zone 2?

Larynx
Hypoharynx
CN 10,11,12
Vessels
Carotids
Internal jugular
SC

22

What is included in neck trauma zone 3

Pharynx
Cranial Nerves
Vessels
Carotids
IJV
Vertebral artery
SC

23

What are common places for fractures in facial trauma?

Maxilla
Orbits
le Fort

24

How dangerous are maxilla fractures?

Potentially life threatening

25

How do you diagnose an orbit floor fracture (blow out fracture)?

Tear drop sign

26

Describe a Le Fort I

Break through maxilla under nose

27

Describe a Le Fort II

Maxilla breaks away

28

Describe a Le Fort III

Maxilla and part of temporal break

29

What are the 4 steps in the reconstruction ladder?

Primary closure
Healing by secondary intent
Skin graft
Skin flap

30

What is primary closure?

Suturing

31

What is healing by secondary intent?

Heal naturally but keep clean and covered