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Flashcards in early fascism Deck (24)
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1

what was fascist vision in 1919?

-united Italy led by ex-servicemen of WW1
-Nationalism is key
-pol, eco and soc stable and united country

2

what was fascist vision in 1921?

-Nationalism is key
-pol, eco and soc stable and united country

3

what was fascist ideology regarding economy in 1919?

-8 hour working day and minimum wage
-nationalise armaments factories
-revision of all contracts for military provisions and seizure of 85% of profits

4

what was fascist ideology regarding military affairs in 1919?

-creation of a short service militia with defensive responsibilities only
-peaceful foreign policy

5

what was fascist ideology regarding social issues in 1919?

-anticlerical. confiscation of church property
-create a republic and remove noble titles
-seizure of religious ceremonies' possessions

6

what was fascist ideology regarding economy in 1921?

-fascist unions replace current ones
-no mention of minimum wage
-nationally owned businesses sold to private investors
-proportional taxation system
-less progressive system not as focused on wealth
-ANTI-SOCIALIST

7

what was fascist ideology regarding military affairs in 1921?

-compulsory military service
-raise Italy to the status of a great power
-focus on training future soldiers in schools

8

what was fascist ideology regarding social affairs in 1921?

-no mention of removing noble titles or abolishing the monarchy
-no attacks on catholic church or pope

9

How did Mussolini's political expediency change fascist ideology?

-dual policy
-pact of pacification
-create a sense of legitimacy for the PNF

10

How did failure in the 1919 election change fascist ideology?

-forces them to change their policies
-socialists paraded Mussolini's coffin around Milan --> humiliating

11

How did need for catholic support change fascist ideology?

-by 1921 the Catholics were not willing to work with the liberals (issues over divorce and the roman question)

-could use catholic support to gain stable power

12

How did exploiting fear of socialism change fascist ideology?

-Bienno Rosso strikes turns industrialists off socialism
-By 1920 landowners are also worried about socialism

13

How did Salandra help Mussolini become PM?

-encouraged king not to declare a state of emergency
-accepted M's offer of a coalition
-asked M to be a part of his government
-suggested M be PM instead of his liberal rivals

14

How did Facta help Mussolini become PM?

-failed to act against fascists before the takeover of major towns and cities
-resigned, leaving post for PM open
-weak, so king had no faith in him
-accepted M's promise of a coalition

15

How did Orlando help Mussolini become PM?

-accepts M's promise of a coalition
-called for a coaltion including fascists
-suggested M be PM instead of his liberal rivals

16

How did Giolitti help Mussolini become PM?

-refuses to help Facta when he becomes PM himself
-more concerned with stopping rivals than M

17

How did King Victor Emmanuel III help Mussolini become PM?

-lacks the confidence to arrest Mussolini
-easily persuaded (afraid of a civil war)
-backs out of declaring a state of emergency
-sucking up to fascists so Duke of Acosta doesn't replace him

18

Role of Mussolini in the growth of fascism

-changes fascist policy (PNF formed 1921)
-dual policy (new programme 1921)
--> August 1921 pact of pacification
-myth that fascists saved Italy from socialism
-march on Rome shows confidence

19

Role of the weak liberal state in the growth of fascism

- 4 prime ministers 1919-1922
- failure to deal with fascist violence or socialist strikes
-don't solve economic issues or mutilated victory
-Fiume
- 1919 election. Liberals do badly. Unstable coalition

20

Role of WW1 in the growth of fascism

-divided country in to neutralists and interventionists
-trincerocrazia and culture of violence among returning soldiers
-economic crisis. 2m unemployed in 1919
-highlights failures of liberal state
-Arditi and Trinceristi

21

who were the arditi?

black uniforms
formed after Caporetto

22

who were the trinceristi?

returned soldiers with the strength to destroy the liberal state

23

Role of fascist violence in the growth of fascism

-myth that they saved Italy from a socialist revolution
--> army and police more scared of left so tolerate it
-showed Italy to be on verge of civil war
-M could blackmail king and gov
-by 1921 fascist squads control Emilia and Tuscany
-liberals don't stop squadristi burning down Avanti!

24

Role of the left in the growth of fascism

- had 26/69 provinces by 1920
- Bienno Rosso strikes. Look like internal enemy
--> Giolitti looks weak
-split in to PCI and PSI
-failed strike in 1922