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Flashcards in Mussolini's domestic policy Deck (22)
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what was Mussolini's relationship with the church like before he became PM?

-originally called for the confiscation of church property (1919)
-realised he needed to compromise in order to gain support
-in 1921 he claimed "fascism neither preaches nor practices anti-clericalism"


what was Mussolini's relationship with the church like in his early reign?

-Pope Pius XI was more concerned with the communist threat in Italy
-Mussolini reintroduced RE in school and crucifixes on public buildings
-Baptized his three children in to the catholic church
-undermined the PPI and so pope forced sturzo to resign in 1923


what was Mussolini's relationship with the church like by 1929?

-11 feb 1929: Lateran pacts
-pope recognised Italian state
-state recognised Pope's control over vatican city
-pope received £30m for surrendering Rome
-Catholicism was the sole religion of Italy


what agreements came from the Lateran pacts?

-roman question solved
--> increased M's prestige
-Church supports Abyssinia in 1935
-M saves the nearly bankrupt bank of Rome


what disagreements came despite the Lateran pacts?

-M tried to shut down Catholic action in 1931
-power sharing agreement
-pope critical of anti-semitic decrees 1938
-Radio Vatican
-we have no need


what is 'we have no need' in Latin?

Non Abbiamo Bisogno


was Italy anit-semitic in the early 1930s?

-Mussolini had a Jewish mistress
-1932 "always behaved well as citizens and fought courageously"


why did active persecution of Jewish people begin in 1938?

-increasing relations with Germany
-relative ease of conquering Ethiopia confirmed views that Italinas were a superior race
-France opposed Italy's involvement in the Spanish civil war, and their PM (Leon Blum) was Jewish


what did the 1938 manifesto of racial scientists declare?

"The Jews do not belong to the Italian race"


what were Mussolini's policies towards Jews after 1938?

-banned from state schools (1928)
-excluded from membership in PNF and cultural organisations
-forbidden to marry non-Jews


what was the impact of policies on Jews?

-lose liberty and standard of living
-live under fear that fascists would adopt murderous policies of their Nazi allies
--> Mussolini was aware of Nazi policy but made no objections


what were the exemptions to Mussolini's policies on Jews?

-inconsistent implementation of laws
-those who served in WW1 or served regime in some way e.g. Farinacci kept his Jewish secretary
-little effort to enforce laws (many officials felt it was wrong)


what were that attitudes and actions of radical fascists?

-Farinacci: "the Jews want to destroy us, we will destroy them"
-1943 onwards: M allowed persecution to increase
-over 7500 Italian Jews were sent to Nazi death camps


what was the impact of Mussolini's relationship with Hitler?

-anti-semitic legislation 1938
-6000 Jews left italy in 3 years
-M's aim to create a more militaristic nation, united in hatred
-reform of customs


what was the reform of customs?

-ideological campaign 1938
-civil servants wore uniforms
-army adopted the goose step
-Italians must greet each other with the Roman salute


how did foreign policy contribute to unrest with the regime in the late 1930s?

-Anschluss made Italians fearful
--> Mussolini's weakness and subordination
-spanish civil war
-reform of customs


how did economic problems contribute to unrest with the regime in the late 1930s?

-squeeze on m/c incomes to pay for growing gov spending
-reliance on Germany
-Autarky attempt made consumer goods more expensive


how did domestic tensions contribute to unrest with the regime in the late 1930s?

-battle for grain led to worsening diet
-Pope and people not open to anti-semitism
-most ignore the reform of customs
-M no longer youthful and dynamic leader


how could you argue that there was not unrest with the regime in the late 1930s?

-no evidence that antifascist groups grew
-police still functioned
-whole generation of fascists who see no alternatives


What were the strikes in 1943?

-March 1943
-100,000 went on strike in Turin (spread to Milan)
-showed weakness of government


how did antifascist groups grow?

-Communist newspaper resurfaced in 1942 (L'Unita)
-party of action secretly formed
-christian democrats form in 1942
-Secret police arrest 1,400 March/June 1943
-antifascist slogans appear on buildings


what did the conservative elites do in 1943?

-from 1942, Vatican, miliatry leaders, police and industrialists all went M deposed and Italy out of the war
-no plan of action until 3 sept 1943 when allies invade