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Flashcards in Mussolini's domestic policy Deck (22)
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1

what was Mussolini's relationship with the church like before he became PM?

-originally called for the confiscation of church property (1919)
-realised he needed to compromise in order to gain support
-in 1921 he claimed "fascism neither preaches nor practices anti-clericalism"

2

what was Mussolini's relationship with the church like in his early reign?

-Pope Pius XI was more concerned with the communist threat in Italy
-Mussolini reintroduced RE in school and crucifixes on public buildings
-Baptized his three children in to the catholic church
-undermined the PPI and so pope forced sturzo to resign in 1923

3

what was Mussolini's relationship with the church like by 1929?

-11 feb 1929: Lateran pacts
-pope recognised Italian state
-state recognised Pope's control over vatican city
-pope received £30m for surrendering Rome
-Catholicism was the sole religion of Italy

4

what agreements came from the Lateran pacts?

-roman question solved
--> increased M's prestige
-Church supports Abyssinia in 1935
-M saves the nearly bankrupt bank of Rome

5

what disagreements came despite the Lateran pacts?

-M tried to shut down Catholic action in 1931
-power sharing agreement
-pope critical of anti-semitic decrees 1938
-Radio Vatican
-we have no need

6

what is 'we have no need' in Latin?

Non Abbiamo Bisogno

7

was Italy anit-semitic in the early 1930s?

No
-Mussolini had a Jewish mistress
-1932 "always behaved well as citizens and fought courageously"

8

why did active persecution of Jewish people begin in 1938?

-increasing relations with Germany
-relative ease of conquering Ethiopia confirmed views that Italinas were a superior race
-France opposed Italy's involvement in the Spanish civil war, and their PM (Leon Blum) was Jewish

9

what did the 1938 manifesto of racial scientists declare?

"The Jews do not belong to the Italian race"

10

what were Mussolini's policies towards Jews after 1938?

-banned from state schools (1928)
-excluded from membership in PNF and cultural organisations
-forbidden to marry non-Jews

11

what was the impact of policies on Jews?

-lose liberty and standard of living
-live under fear that fascists would adopt murderous policies of their Nazi allies
--> Mussolini was aware of Nazi policy but made no objections

12

what were the exemptions to Mussolini's policies on Jews?

-inconsistent implementation of laws
-those who served in WW1 or served regime in some way e.g. Farinacci kept his Jewish secretary
-little effort to enforce laws (many officials felt it was wrong)

13

what were that attitudes and actions of radical fascists?

-Farinacci: "the Jews want to destroy us, we will destroy them"
-1943 onwards: M allowed persecution to increase
-over 7500 Italian Jews were sent to Nazi death camps

14

what was the impact of Mussolini's relationship with Hitler?

-anti-semitic legislation 1938
-6000 Jews left italy in 3 years
-M's aim to create a more militaristic nation, united in hatred
-reform of customs

15

what was the reform of customs?

-ideological campaign 1938
-civil servants wore uniforms
-army adopted the goose step
-Italians must greet each other with the Roman salute

16

how did foreign policy contribute to unrest with the regime in the late 1930s?

-Anschluss made Italians fearful
--> Mussolini's weakness and subordination
-spanish civil war
-reform of customs

17

how did economic problems contribute to unrest with the regime in the late 1930s?

-squeeze on m/c incomes to pay for growing gov spending
-reliance on Germany
-Autarky attempt made consumer goods more expensive
-unemployment

18

how did domestic tensions contribute to unrest with the regime in the late 1930s?

-battle for grain led to worsening diet
-Pope and people not open to anti-semitism
-most ignore the reform of customs
-M no longer youthful and dynamic leader

19

how could you argue that there was not unrest with the regime in the late 1930s?

-no evidence that antifascist groups grew
-police still functioned
-whole generation of fascists who see no alternatives

20

What were the strikes in 1943?

-March 1943
-100,000 went on strike in Turin (spread to Milan)
-showed weakness of government

21

how did antifascist groups grow?

-Communist newspaper resurfaced in 1942 (L'Unita)
-party of action secretly formed
-christian democrats form in 1942
-Secret police arrest 1,400 March/June 1943
-antifascist slogans appear on buildings

22

what did the conservative elites do in 1943?

-from 1942, Vatican, miliatry leaders, police and industrialists all went M deposed and Italy out of the war
-no plan of action until 3 sept 1943 when allies invade