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Flashcards in pre-Mussolini Deck (28)
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political problems after unification

-limited franchise until 1922
-nationalism grew
-peasant discontent
-weak coalitions (trasformisio)
-socialist party grew
-20 governments (1870-1915)


social problems after unification

-more than 69% illiterate in 1870
-natural disasters
-after 1890s, 200,000 emigrated per year
-hostile catholic church (PPI 1919)
-modernization and overcrowding


economic problems after unification

-limited transport, communications and resources
-TB and Malaria
-Economic growth in North only
-failed attempts to improve industry in South


how was unification successful?

1900: free trade
1912: manhood suffrage


how was unification unsuccessful?

1900: king Umburto I assassinated
1910: Vesuvius
1910-11: 2,500 died from cholera in Naples


what was the Roman question?

split between the Italian state and catholic church (refused to recognize Italy as a state, and wanted its land back)


what was rigorgimento?

unifivation of ITaly in to a new nation after 1870


What was irredentism?

nationalist belief that unification would only be complete when ALL Italian speaking lands were incorporated


What opposition did Giolitti face from the nationalists?

-ANI formed 1910 (Corradini)
-not willing to work with liberals
-invasion of Libya 1911 partly to appease Nationalists
-influential 1911-14 after Adwa and poverty
-want aggressive foreign policy


What opposition did Giolitti face from the socialists?

-PSI formed 1892 (Turati)
-won a qaurter of seats in 1913
-Giolitti offered moderate social reform
--> sick pay and some pensions
-Bissolati offered place in cabinet
-Compromises with the socialist damaged relations with others


What opposition did Giolitti face from the Catholics?

-1904 - "two parallel lines"
-1911 - part of governing coalitions in Bologna, Florence and Venice
-pope favoured Giolitti in 1913
-Roman question not solved
-Giolitti offered some concessions e.g. RE in schools


What problems did Giolitti face with the economy?

-south less modernised
--> disease and drought after deforestation

-BUT - increasing exports and more manufacturing e.g. Fiat


What problems did Giolitti face with Libya?

-national enthusiasm (first overseas colony)
-did not appease ANI, who claimed credit
-money lost and 3500 Italians died


What problems did Giolitti face with the extended franchise?

-1912: all men over 30 can vote
--> 70% of franchise illiterate
-PSI got a quarter of votes in 1913
-trasformisio now impossible


when did Giolitti resign?

21st March 1914
-mass suffrage meant socialists and Catholics got most the vote
-replaced by Salandra


what was the intervention crisis?

-join triple alliance 1882

-salandra wants to join and begins secret discussions

-Giolotti, 300 MPs, PSI, Catholics and pope all against intervention

-Treaty of London

-king asked G to form a new ministry


when was the intervention crisis?

26 April 1915


when did Italy enter the war?

25th may 1915 (delcare war on Austria)


how did social tensions increase during the war?

-frostbite and cholera for soldiers
-5 million conscripts, cant understand commanders
-Cadorna killed 4000 for desertion
-abandoned 600,000 pows
-400,000 disappeared at Caporetto


how did political tensions increase during the war?

-1916 strafexpedition crippled morale. Salandra forced to resign
-Caporetto reignited divisions
-PSI only party in Europe not supporting war
-increased polarisation


how did economic tensions increase during the war?

-2 machine guns per batallion (Austria had 12)
-strikes illegal
-inflation and imbalanced economy
-real wages fell 25%
-August 1917: 50 workers killed in Turin


how did things change for Italy?

-Dallolio outproduced Britain for artillery

-October 1918: Orlando encouraged Diaz to attack
-->24th Vittorio Veneto

-Austria signed armistice on November 4th


what new groups formed after the war ended?

Trinceristi: returned soldiers

Arditi: commanders in army after Caporetto

Squadrismo: military fascist squads


what was the mutilated victory?

-Italy did not get Fiume at Versailles. Orlando was considered a failure and forced to resign

-D'Annunzio's phrase to describe liberal weakness


what was the occupation of Fiume?

12 september 1919
D'Annunzio took 2000 men to occupy Fiume

gov failed to respond for 15 months


Who were the prime ministers during WW1?

Salandra --> Boselli --> Orlando


Who were the army leaders during ww1?

Cadorna --> Diaz (1917 = turning point)


What were the key battles in WW1?

Caporetto: 1917
Veneto: 1918