consolidating power Flashcards Preview

Italy > consolidating power > Flashcards

Flashcards in consolidating power Deck (14)
Loading flashcards...
1

how did Mussolini succeed in increasing his own popularity?

-cult of Il Duce sustained myth of regime
-propaganda in all medias
-30 million pictures of him circulated
-appears a dynamic leader

2

how did Mussolini fail to increase his own popularity?

-image harder to sustain as he gets older
-less popular after 1935
-focus on one leader rather than an ideology will not outlive him
(-at expense of own party)

3

how did Mussolini succeed in controlling the Italian people?

-only 9 death sentences
-Bocchini and OVRA broke up antifascist organisation
-5000 informers
-OND: 4m members by 1939
-press censorship (Avanti! banned)
-confino threat
-1937 ministry of popular culture

4

how did Mussolini fail to control the Italian people?

-solvenes
-can't reach south
-con't control what people think/believe. Only participate because it benefits them
-ministry of pop culture not sophisticated

5

how did Mussolini succeed in creating a nation of loyal fascists?

-ONB indoctrinates youth
-idea of second ceasar
-teachers had to be part of PNF
-1929 centralised education and youth groups
-by 1937 fascist youth organisations had over 7m members
-1937 1m attend exhibition of Roman history
-1934 and 1938 football world cups

6

how did Mussolini fail to create a nation of loyal fascists?

-cult of Il Duce separates Mussolini and fascism
-OND does not aim to indoctrinate
-87% of box office takings are from Hollywood films
-youth formed antifascist organisations
-in south, few studied past the compulsory age
-less girls took part than boys

7

how did Mussolini compromise with the king (Victor Emmanuel III)?

-Italy remained a constitutional monarchy with the king as head of state
-king refused to put fascist symbol on flag and spoke out against anti-Semitic decrees

8

how did Mussolini fail to compromise with the king (Victor Emmanuel III)?

-slowly reduced the kings power e.g. June 1940 took complete control of the military
-king was happy to play subservient

9

how did Mussolini compromise with the conservative elites?

ARMY: allowed it to be run independently
-M was minister for war but left the running of armed forces to undersecretaries
-ambitious generals realised being pro-fascist would get them a promotion

CIVIL SERVICE: had to be PNF members by 1935
-rewarded loyalty
-membership of PNF increased in 1920s

10

how did Mussolini fail to compromise with the conservative elites?

-JUDICIARY: purged judges who were too independent or did not support fascism
-M occasionally intervened on verdicts and sentences

11

how did Mussolini compromise with the central government?

-left the senate completely unchanged (gets conservative elites on side)

12

how did Mussolini fail to compromise with the central government?

-Dec 1925 became head of government
-opposition parties banned
-parliament lost most abilities
-electorate shrank and results were rigged
-FGC in reality had little influence

13

how did Mussolini compromise with local governments?

-traditional position of prefect as highest state authority in each province remained

14

how did Mussolini fail to compromise with local governments?

-placed in hands of the conservative elite
-local self government abolished
-appointed by Mussolini to ensure loyalty
-ras were angry that podesta got to run local councils