Flashcards in consolidating power Deck (14)
how did Mussolini succeed in increasing his own popularity?
-cult of Il Duce sustained myth of regime
-propaganda in all medias
-30 million pictures of him circulated
-appears a dynamic leader
how did Mussolini fail to increase his own popularity?
-image harder to sustain as he gets older
-less popular after 1935
-focus on one leader rather than an ideology will not outlive him
(-at expense of own party)
how did Mussolini succeed in controlling the Italian people?
-only 9 death sentences
-Bocchini and OVRA broke up antifascist organisation
-OND: 4m members by 1939
-press censorship (Avanti! banned)
-1937 ministry of popular culture
how did Mussolini fail to control the Italian people?
-can't reach south
-con't control what people think/believe. Only participate because it benefits them
-ministry of pop culture not sophisticated
how did Mussolini succeed in creating a nation of loyal fascists?
-ONB indoctrinates youth
-idea of second ceasar
-teachers had to be part of PNF
-1929 centralised education and youth groups
-by 1937 fascist youth organisations had over 7m members
-1937 1m attend exhibition of Roman history
-1934 and 1938 football world cups
how did Mussolini fail to create a nation of loyal fascists?
-cult of Il Duce separates Mussolini and fascism
-OND does not aim to indoctrinate
-87% of box office takings are from Hollywood films
-youth formed antifascist organisations
-in south, few studied past the compulsory age
-less girls took part than boys
how did Mussolini compromise with the king (Victor Emmanuel III)?
-Italy remained a constitutional monarchy with the king as head of state
-king refused to put fascist symbol on flag and spoke out against anti-Semitic decrees
how did Mussolini fail to compromise with the king (Victor Emmanuel III)?
-slowly reduced the kings power e.g. June 1940 took complete control of the military
-king was happy to play subservient
how did Mussolini compromise with the conservative elites?
ARMY: allowed it to be run independently
-M was minister for war but left the running of armed forces to undersecretaries
-ambitious generals realised being pro-fascist would get them a promotion
CIVIL SERVICE: had to be PNF members by 1935
-membership of PNF increased in 1920s
how did Mussolini fail to compromise with the conservative elites?
-JUDICIARY: purged judges who were too independent or did not support fascism
-M occasionally intervened on verdicts and sentences
how did Mussolini compromise with the central government?
-left the senate completely unchanged (gets conservative elites on side)
how did Mussolini fail to compromise with the central government?
-Dec 1925 became head of government
-opposition parties banned
-parliament lost most abilities
-electorate shrank and results were rigged
-FGC in reality had little influence
how did Mussolini compromise with local governments?
-traditional position of prefect as highest state authority in each province remained