Flashcards in Mussolini's foreign policy Deck (38)
what position did Mussolini start in?
-needed strong foreign policy to overcome the shame of the mutilated victory
-Italy's military position was weak
What were Mussolini's aims?
-opportunistic, often focusing on his own prestige
-assert position as a world power
-consolidate rule and expand imperialism in Africa
-sphere of influence in balkans/Mediterannean
how did Mussolini's approach develop?
-1920s: cautious while he consolidated power
-early 1930s: concerned by Hitler's power
-late 1930s: more aggressive
What happened in Greece/Corfu?
-27 August: Italian general Tellini and 4 staff assassinated in Greece
-Mussolini blamed Greek gov and demanded full apology and 50m lire compensation
-31 August: bombarded Corfu without warning
How was Greece/Corfu a success?
-celebrated by nationalists
- received 50m lire
-M showed self as decisive leader
How was Greece/Corfu a failure?
-LoN forced him to leave Corfu on 27 December
-Did not receive apology
-forced to accept Italy's position
What happened in Yugoslavia and Albania?
-January 1924 - Yugoslavia recognized Fiume as part of Italy
-1924: Italians sponsored Ahmed Zog takes power in Albania. Is a satellite state by 1926.
-1934, Croation terrorists assassinate Yugoslavian king
How was Yugoslavia a success?
-achieved what the liberal government could not
How was Yugoslavia a failure?
-Fiume's significance was merely symbolic
-Italy had to recognize Yugoslavian rule at Susak
-no material gains
What were the Locarno treaties? Were they a success?
-Br, Fr, Gr and Italy settle border disputes
-Italy appears a major power (propaganda)
-Failed to get concessions on border with Austria. Unimportant in meeting
What was the 'pacification of Libya'?
-poison gas, mass execution and concentration camps killed 1/3 of Libya's population
-slow progress, but Italy put down Libyan rebellion in 1932
-details kept quiet in the press
what were Mussolini's goals regarding relations?
-wants good relations with great powers, but still wants to challenge them and show his own power
How were Mussolini's relations with Britain successful?
-good terms with Chamberlin and Churchill
-Revaluation of the lire depended on funding from Br
How were Mussolini's relations with Britain a failure?
-Br back LoN during corfu incident
-They dominate Mediterannean
--> tried to undermine them by funding pro-Italian groups in Malta
How were Mussolini's relations with France successful?
-worked together on Locarno pact
How were Mussolini's relations with France a failure?
-OVRA ran agents and operations in France
-France controlled Tunisia and was worried about Italian intentions
-unsuccessful anti-french alliance attempt with Gr Spain and Hungary
How were Mussolini's relations with Germany successful?
-funded nationalistic groups in WR (including the Nazis)
-in early years, wanted good relations
How were Mussolini's relations with Germany a failure?
-initially hostile and worried about Anschluss
-helped Austrian Nazi coup fail
-little respect for WR
What was the Stresa front? Were they a success?
-Italy, Fr and Br meet to declare a desire for peace and commitment to the LoN
-M claimed they met an agreement on his goals in N Africa but they deny this
-Abyssinia caused conflict...
Why did desire for Prestige drive Mussolini to invade Abyssinia?
-needed victory to avenge humiliating defeat at Adwa in 1896 and to boost cult of Il Duce
-believed that colonies were part of Italy's historic destiny (Roman empire)
How did economic matters drive Mussolini to invade Abyssinia?
-raw materials from Abyssinia could aid autarky
-military glory on the cheap
-would need to produce arms, equipment and transportation for war
How did domestic problems drive Mussolini to invade Abyssinia?
-satisfies PNF members who want a more fascist direction
-domestic policies so far had disappointing results
How did the desire to achieve a great power status drive Mussolini to invade Abyssinia?
-rise in power of the Nazis had transformed the European situation
-wants a growing empire
--> already has colonies in eritrea and Somaliland (convenient location)
what was the pretext for the Abyssinian war?
-1929: Italian soldiers began to occupy disputed land
-1930: built a fort on Abyssinian land
-Dec 1934: Skirmish left 30 Italian troops killed
-Mussolini demanded a full apology and compensation
When did Mussolini invade Abyssinia and what happened?
-October 1935: launched invased of 400,000 men
-Badoglio was brutal - mass aerial bombings, illegal use of chemical warfare
-500,000 Abyssinians killed
When did the invasion of Abyssinia end?
-5th may 1936: victorious army enter Addis Ababa
How was the Abyssinian invasion a success?
-Dec 1935: Gold for Patria
-sanctions were propaganda coup
-M looked like the new Ceaser establishing empire (20m listen to his radio broadcast)
-weak sanctions: still has Suez canal
How was the Abyssinian invasion a failure?
-lira devalued by 40%
-many Italians were unenthusiastic
-brutal war changed perception overseas
what was the effect of the Abyssinian invasion on the international situation?
-highlighted the weakness of the league of nations
--> M saw it as a sign that Br and Fr were weak
-move closer to Gr began