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what was the acerbo law?

-proposed that 2/3 of parliamentary seats went to the party who won more than 25% of the vote


how was the acerbo law passed?

-PCI and PSI opposed it
-Vatican, church and king supported it (want stability)
-fascists stage demonstrations in Tuscany and Umbria and threaten violence
-M wore black shirt in parliament


what happened at the April 1924 election?

-tainted by violence (and the murder of Piccinini)
-prominent liberals on list of fascist candidates
-Mussolini got 66.3% of vote (275 deputies)


what was the Matteoti crisis?

-PCI leader Matteoti gave speech criticizing corruption of election (rumors he had file)
-10 June: kidnapped
-16 August: body found just outside Rome


how did the Matteoti crisis effect Mussolini?

- his press secretary, Rossi, owned the car that a witness saw Matteoti dragged in to
-Dumini (head of ceka) led the kidnapping
-press were fiercely critical


what was the aventine secession?

-13 June 1924: 100 antifascit deputies left parliament, establishing their own parliament on Aventine hill


what was the effect of the Aventine Secession?

-destroyed chances of a vote of no confidence
-gave king chance to do nothing
-M ordered PNF to cease violence
-26 June: senate gave gov a vote of confidence by 255 votes to 21


what happened in November 1924?

-M bows to demands from army
--> removes PNF members who continue violence and makes MSVN swear oath of loyalty to king
--> this angered the ras


what happened on December 31st 1924?

-M meed with squads who threaten to remove M as their leader
(-Salandra and leaders threaten to leave coaltion)


what happened on 3rd January 1924?

-M makes speech to parliament announcing fascist dictatorship, not of the party but a personal rule under himself


what happened on 12th Jan 1925?

-M formed a new cabinet, without most liberals


what happened in February 1925?

-M appoints Farinacci as PNF secretary, giving him the role of purging radicals who do not support M's political direction


what happened in October 1925?

-FGC approve motion forcing ras to disband sqaudristi (this gains army support)
-Palazo-Vidoni pact (fascist unions take power from socialist and catholic unions)


How do other parties grow weak in 1925?

-Zaniboni is arrested for alleged assassination attempt. Mussolini banned the PSU
-pope withdraws support for PPI and it collapses


How does Mussolini become a dictator 1925-6?

-Dec 1925: becomes Il Duce and head of gov (parliament can not remove him with vote of no confidence)
-Jan 1926: granted ability to rule by decree


what happened on the 31st October 1926?

-alleged assassination attempt allowed Mussolini to ban all political parties except the PNF
-OVRA established
-communist parliamentarians banned and leader Gramsci arrested


how did Mussolini finalize his establishment of a dictatorship?

-elected local gov and mayors replaced with podesta
-PNF secretary Turati stated that prefects would come before ras in any conflict

-By end of 1926 Italy was a one party police state


how did weak opponents help Mussolini consolidate power 1922-26?

-king shows support
-Give M emergency powers 1922-23
-Aventine secession
-liberals go on 1924 electoral list
-Catholics collaborate
-feb 1923: ANI absorbed in to PNF


how did the actions of Mussolini in suppressing the fascists help consolidate power 1922-26?

-Ras want fascist revolution
-FGC 1922: helps M overcome weak position in cabinet
-MSVN squads control violence (absorb squadristi in 1923)
-purges radicals
-1922-23 party doubled in size


how did threats of violence and promises help Mussolini consolidate power 1922-26?

-November 1922: threatens to dismiss parliament unless he gets emergency powers
-Acerbo law: black shirt in parliament
-1924 election: intimidation and violence


how did Mussolini's control of parliament help consolidate power 1922-26?

-made himself foreign minister and minister of the interior
-appointed De'Stefani to reassure conservative industrialists
-emergency powers


how could it be claimed that Mussolini's opponents were not weak 1922-23?

-assassination attempts
-skillful political appointments get liberals on side
-didn't want civil war/unrest
-not weak, just made mistakes