Flashcards in establishing a dictatorship Deck (22)
what was the acerbo law?
-proposed that 2/3 of parliamentary seats went to the party who won more than 25% of the vote
how was the acerbo law passed?
-PCI and PSI opposed it
-Vatican, church and king supported it (want stability)
-fascists stage demonstrations in Tuscany and Umbria and threaten violence
-M wore black shirt in parliament
what happened at the April 1924 election?
-tainted by violence (and the murder of Piccinini)
-prominent liberals on list of fascist candidates
-Mussolini got 66.3% of vote (275 deputies)
what was the Matteoti crisis?
-PCI leader Matteoti gave speech criticizing corruption of election (rumors he had file)
-10 June: kidnapped
-16 August: body found just outside Rome
how did the Matteoti crisis effect Mussolini?
- his press secretary, Rossi, owned the car that a witness saw Matteoti dragged in to
-Dumini (head of ceka) led the kidnapping
-press were fiercely critical
what was the aventine secession?
-13 June 1924: 100 antifascit deputies left parliament, establishing their own parliament on Aventine hill
what was the effect of the Aventine Secession?
-destroyed chances of a vote of no confidence
-gave king chance to do nothing
-M ordered PNF to cease violence
-26 June: senate gave gov a vote of confidence by 255 votes to 21
what happened in November 1924?
-M bows to demands from army
--> removes PNF members who continue violence and makes MSVN swear oath of loyalty to king
--> this angered the ras
what happened on December 31st 1924?
-M meed with squads who threaten to remove M as their leader
(-Salandra and leaders threaten to leave coaltion)
what happened on 3rd January 1924?
-M makes speech to parliament announcing fascist dictatorship, not of the party but a personal rule under himself
what happened on 12th Jan 1925?
-M formed a new cabinet, without most liberals
what happened in February 1925?
-M appoints Farinacci as PNF secretary, giving him the role of purging radicals who do not support M's political direction
what happened in October 1925?
-FGC approve motion forcing ras to disband sqaudristi (this gains army support)
-Palazo-Vidoni pact (fascist unions take power from socialist and catholic unions)
How do other parties grow weak in 1925?
-Zaniboni is arrested for alleged assassination attempt. Mussolini banned the PSU
-pope withdraws support for PPI and it collapses
How does Mussolini become a dictator 1925-6?
-Dec 1925: becomes Il Duce and head of gov (parliament can not remove him with vote of no confidence)
-Jan 1926: granted ability to rule by decree
what happened on the 31st October 1926?
-alleged assassination attempt allowed Mussolini to ban all political parties except the PNF
-communist parliamentarians banned and leader Gramsci arrested
how did Mussolini finalize his establishment of a dictatorship?
-elected local gov and mayors replaced with podesta
-PNF secretary Turati stated that prefects would come before ras in any conflict
-By end of 1926 Italy was a one party police state
how did weak opponents help Mussolini consolidate power 1922-26?
-king shows support
-Give M emergency powers 1922-23
-liberals go on 1924 electoral list
-feb 1923: ANI absorbed in to PNF
how did the actions of Mussolini in suppressing the fascists help consolidate power 1922-26?
-Ras want fascist revolution
-FGC 1922: helps M overcome weak position in cabinet
-MSVN squads control violence (absorb squadristi in 1923)
-1922-23 party doubled in size
how did threats of violence and promises help Mussolini consolidate power 1922-26?
-November 1922: threatens to dismiss parliament unless he gets emergency powers
-Acerbo law: black shirt in parliament
-1924 election: intimidation and violence
how did Mussolini's control of parliament help consolidate power 1922-26?
-made himself foreign minister and minister of the interior
-appointed De'Stefani to reassure conservative industrialists