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Flashcards in Ears Asessment Deck (65):
0

External Ear

Auricle or pinna
Made up of flexible cartilage and skin
Design is to guide sound waves into meatus of external auditory canal

1

The middle ear acts as a?

Volume dampener to protect the inner ear

2

Eustachian tube

Conduit that connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx and allows for pressure regulation of the middle ear

3

Inner ear is responsible for?

Translation of sound to cranial nerve VII which transmit it to the brain stem

Only section responsible for vestibular function

4

Organ of corti

Transfers the signal into electrical impulses for the auditory nerve

5

Sound is perceived in two ways

Air conduction and bone conduction, compromise in either causes hearing loss

6

Conductive hearing loss

Occurs when sound wave transmission through the external or middle ear is disrupted

7

Sensorimotor hearing loss

Results from a problem somewhere beyond the middle ear
Sites of dysfunction:
Cochlea
Organ or corti
Auditory nerve
Auditory cortex

8

Presbycusis

Results from gradual degeneration of of nerves and sensory hair cells of the organ of corti
Can be from aging or ototoxic drugs

9

Tinnitus

Perception of buzzing or ringing in one or both ears that does not correspond with external sound

10

Illness in the labyrinth can cause

Loss of equilibrium and sense of vertigo

11

Menier's disease

Vertigo, sever nausea and vomiting, exacerbation so that can last up to 24 hours

12

Vertigo is pregnant women can result from?

Increased vascularity and edema

13

Infants and children are susceptible to?

Otitis media,

14

Infants and children's Eustachian tube is different how?

Shorter, wider and more horizontal

15

In children, Enlarged adenoids related to nasal allergies often obstruct?

Outlets for the eustachian tube to drain

16

Otis media can cause?

Severe discomfort, difficulty feeding, sleeping, and general fussiness and rarely causes hearing loss
Normal for fluid to remain in ears for three months

17

Repeated infections or persistent middle ear effusion causes?

Temporary conductive earring loss which can delay onset or advancement of speech

18

Otosclerosis

Common conductive hearing loss in older adults resulting from slow fusion of any combination of the ossicles in the middle ear

19

Presbycusis

Loss of higher pitch sounds, garbled or mumbled speech

20

Immediate attention for ear problems

Button battery in ear canal, foul smelling drainage, ear trauma, sudden hearing loss

21

Cholesteatoma

Abnormal accumulation of squamous epithelium within the middle ear

22

Common ear symptoms

Hearing loss
Vertigo
Tinnitus
Otalgia

23

Whisper test

Evaluates for loss of high frequency sounds. Have patient cover opposite ear. Whisper a simple sentence from 18" back, have pt repeat sentence

24

Weber's test

Helps to differentiate the cause of unilateral hearing loss

25

Placement of external ear on the skull in infants

Superior portion of the pinna should be congruent with the outer canthus of the eye

26

Weber's test

Helps to differentiate the cause of unilateral hearing loss
place tuning fork on midline of parietal bone

27

Macrotia

Excessive enlargement of the auricle; usually congenital

28

Microtia

Small or deformed auricle that may be associated with a blind or absent auditory canal

29

Edematous ears

External ear canal that is swollen with inflammation or infection

30

Cartilage staphylococcus

Painful reddened ear usually surrounds incisions, piercings, area of traumatic injury

31

Carcinoma on auricle

Common site of carcinoma
Related to sun exposure
Either basal cell or squamous cell rumors

32

Cyst

Sac or pouch with membranous lining filled with fluid or solid material

33

Tophi

Uric acid crystals associated with gout, may appear as hard nodules on ear

34

External Otis

Inflammatory and infectious discharge in external ear canal

35

TM rupture

To rupture a non intact TM
Clear, purulent or bloody discharge
Hearing loss
Buzzing
Ear pain

36

Acute Otis media

Acute infection in middle ear

Sudden onset
Fever and pain
Fluid may be in middle ear
Can be viral or bacterial

37

Tympanostomy tube

Indicated for chronic Otis media and it's complications

38

Most common hearing test in primary care offices and schools are done with a device called?

audiometer: headphone and box that delivers tones in different frequencies

39

Special considerations for older adults?

cartilage and skin around the external ear may be less pliable
stiff hairs in the ear canal
TM may seem more opaque and less mobile

40

Abnormal findings for infants and children

Lack of moro reflex
inability to locate sound
lack of understandable language by 24 months

41

If a child has a tympanostomy tubes placed, the tube should be in the?

Inferior portion of the TM with the lumen of the tube patent

42

Failure of Romberg's test may indicate dysfunction in the?

vestibular portion of the ear, semicircular canals, and vestibule

43

The most accurate way to evaluate hearing is by?

Audiogram

44

Signs of external otis

redness, swelling of external auditory canal, and discharge

45

Conductive hearing loss on one side may indicate?

external or middle ear disease

46

Patients with conductive hearing loss should have an assessment of?

auricle and external auditory canal to look for blockage

47

TM is assessed to ensure?

no middle ear abnormality or TM perforation

48

pain with auricle movement or tragus palpitation indicates?

otitis externa or furunucle

49

Otalgia usually indicates?

ear dysfunction, most commonly otitis media or otitis externa

50

Severe pain followed by drainage indicates?

ruptured TM

51

pain in the ear can be referred to?

pharynx

52

Children who frequently have otitis media are at risk for?

TM rupture, scarring and hearing loss

53

Risk factors

age, gender, hereditary, family history, lifestyle choices, environmental

54

Nonverbal cues for hearing loss

leaning forward, positioning head for "good ear", concentrating on lip movement instead of eye contact, mumbling answers, giving answers not congruent with questions, asking to repeat questions frequently, responding with loud voice, monotone conversational voice

55

Patients with ear trauma also need evaluation for injury to surrounding structures, which include?

brain injury, basilar skull fracture, neck injury

56

hemotympanum, otorrhea or TM rupture may indicate?

barotrauma from pressure changes or basilar skull fracture

57

cholesteatoma

abnormal accumulation of squamous epithelium in the middle ear-growth can erode auditory ossicles and cause damage to patient's hearing

58

Patients with foul smelling ear drainage, try to wick the fluid from the external ear with?

cotton wick or wisp of cotton

60

Grey to white cerumen is often mistaked as?

eczema

61

The middle ear acts as a perfect reservoir because?

it is dark, warm and moist

62

Semicircular canals and vestibules provide the body with?

equilibrium and proprioception, contains specialized cells for sensing position

63

symptoms of Menier's disease

vertigo with severe nausea and vomiting

64

People with hearing loss are at risk for?

depression, decreased satisfaction with life, reduced functional health, withdrawal from social activities

65

four openings to the middle ear

TM
Cochlear window
oval window
eustachian tube