Nose, Sinuses, Mouth, And Throat Assessment Flashcards Preview

Health Assessment > Nose, Sinuses, Mouth, And Throat Assessment > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nose, Sinuses, Mouth, And Throat Assessment Deck (130):
0

What does the Upper respiratory tract do?

Entry point for food and air
Warms, filters, humidifies, mad transports air to the lower respiratory tract

1

Dorsum

Anterior slope of nose which end inferiority at the tip and laterally at the ala

3

Where do nasal bones attach?

Superiorly at the bridge to the frontal bone and laterally to the lacrimal and maxillary bones

4

Ankyloglossia

limited tongue movement, speech disruption, tight frenulum fixing the tongue to the floor of the mouth

5

Gingivitis

red, swollen, possibly bleeding gums, sore

6

Risk factors for gingivitis

poor oral hygiene, hormonal fluctuations, vitamin B deficiency

7

Gingival Hyperplasia

swelling of gums, enlargement of gum tissue, may over reach teeth

8

Risk factors for Gingival Hyperplasia

hormonal fluctuations, leukemia, side effect of dilantin

9

Dental Caries

progressive destruction of tooth, pain with hot and cold, early may appear chalky, later becomes brown or black and forms a cavity

10

Baby Bottle Tooth Decay

decay and destruction of upper front teeth, caused by infants taking sweet juice or milk to bed, or bottle feeding past the age of one

11

Carcinoma

initially indurated lesion with rolled irregular edges; later may crust or scab. Risk factors: tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, chemical composure

12

Black Hairy Tongue

fungal infection of the tongue involving elongation of the papillae, may follow antibiotic therapy

13

Leukoplakia

white patchy lesions with well-defined borders. Risk factors: chronic irritation, smoking, excessive alcohol use

14

Candidiasis

opportunistic yeast infection of the buccal muscosa and tongue, white and sticky mucus on tongue or muscosa

15

Candidiasis may occur when?

In newborns, antibiotic or corticosteriod therapy, immunosuppresion

16

Aphthous (Canker Sores)

vesicular oral lesion that evolves into a white ulceration with a red margin, pain at and around site, visible oral lesion

17

Aphthous risk factors

stress, fatigue, allergies, autoimmune disorder

18

Herpes Simplex Virus

clear vesicular lesions with indurated base caused by herpes simplex 1 virus, lesions evolve into pustules that rupture, weep, and crust, typical course is 4-10 days

19

Torus Palatinus

bony prominence in the middle of the hard palate, foul odor, whistling sound, recurrent crusting, bleeding from the nose, hole in the septum

20

Strep Throat

infection of the tonsils involving streptococcus bacterium, sore throat, chills, difficult painful swallowing, headache, laryngitis

21

Acute tonsillitis or Pharyngitis

inflammation of the pharyngeal walls or lymphoid tissue

22

Kaposi Sarcoma

rapidly proliferating malignancy of the skin or mucus membranes; oral involvement includes tongue, gingiva and palate, non healing oral lesions

23

Bifid Uvula

congenital complete or partial spilt of uvula; adenoidectomy may be contraindicated, visual split in uvula

24

Cleft Lip

malformation of oral cavity, opening or fissure of the lip and palate

25

Perforated Septum

hole in the nasal septum

illicit drug use, nasal trauma, nose picking, chronic epitaxis

26

Deviated septum

deflection of the center wall of the nose
may be congenital or nasal trauma

27

Nasal Polyps

grapelike swelling of the nasal and sinus mucosa leading to nasal obstruction

28

Sinusitus

infection of one or more paranasal sinuses
Facial pain or pressure, thick nasal discharge, fever, cough, halitosis

29

Rhinitis

inflammation of the nasal mucosa
watery, itchy nose with frequent sneezing and congestion

30

epitaxis

Nosebleed, commonly includes Kiesselbach plexus

31

Allergy testing may be preformed via

skin or blood

32

Approaches to allergy skin testing

prick testing or intradermal testing

33

Radioallergosorbent testing (RAST)

blood test that measures allergen specific IgE antibody

34

Churg-Strauss Syndrome

nasal crusting or polps

35

Sjogren's syndrome

atrophy and drying of the oral mucosa; may lead to epitaxis

36

Older adult consideration

Nose appears more prominent
Edentulous
gums recede
teeth yellow
teeth may loosen
fissures may appear on the tongue

37

Angular Cheilitis

maceration of the skin at the corners of the mouth

38

smooth, glossy tongue

tongue and buccal mucosa may appear smoother and shiny from papillary atrophy and thinning of buccal mucosa

39

Tonsils

not visible in infants, enlarge in toddlers, remain proportionally large in toddlers and gradually decrease as they mature

40

Mouth, nose and throat involvement with Down Syndrome includes?

protruding tongue and flat nasal bone

41

Bednar Apththae

ulcerative abrasions on the posterior hard palate that result from hard sucking

42

Epstein Pearls

appearing as small, white, glistening pearly papules along the median border of the hard palate and gums
normal finding in newborns
represents small retention cyst that dissipate in the first couple of weeks

43

Rubeola Measles

maculopapular rash that occurs within the first 24 hours of fever, inflammation of the nasal mucus membrane accompanied with nasal discharge and cough symptoms

44

Coryza

nasal discharge

45

Koplik Spots

grains of salt on an erythematous base on the buccal mucosa opposite the first and second molar

46

Movement of the tongue should extend to?

alveolar ridge

47

How do you figure the number of deciduous teeth in children younger than two?

the child's age in months minus the number 6

48

All the deciduous teeth should be present at what age?

2 1/2

49

Ingestion of excessive iron may cause?

green or black discoloration of teeth

50

Maternal ingestion or child ingestion of tetracycline may cause?

discoloration of teeth

51

Examining the nose of children is best accomplished by?

gently pressing upward on the tip of the nose and visualizing the nares with light from the otoscope

52

Assessing nasal breathing should include?

Feeling for symmetrical airflow from each nostril

53

Choanal Atresia

present when one nostril is not patent
emergency as an infant but can go undetected as an adolescent

54

Sucking tubercle

formation of a small pad of tissue in the middle of the upper lip

55

Milia

small white bumps across the bridge of the nose

56

Allergic Salute

upward rubbing of the nose induced by itching, causes ridge across the bridge of the nose

57

In pregnant women, increased nasal congestion may occur in response to?

hormonal fluctuations

58

In pregnant women, increased nose bleeds my be secondary to increased?

congestion

59

Epulis

localized gingival enlargement may lead to a tumor like mass that forms on the gums

60

Patients with stroke, head injury, or other nueromuscular disorders are at risk for?

dysphagia

61

Inspection of the throat

press down slightly with tongue depressor
visualize pharynx, tonsils, soft palate, and anterior, posterior tonsillar pillars

62

Tonsillar grading scale

1+-4+

63

Swelling and redness of Wharton duct suggest?

Inflammation of the submandibular gland

64

No movement of the uvula when the patient says "ah" indicates?

Dysfunction of cranial nerve X

65

Infection of the mouth may produce?

Ludwig angina

66

Inspection of teeth and gums

note numbers and position of teeth
note general appearance and signs of decay
note odor of patient's breath

67

swollen of red gums may indicate?

gingivits

68

Foul breath may suggest?

infection

69

Inflamed buccal mucosa suggest?

infection

70

Petechiae

may result from trauma, infection, or decreased platelet count

71

Stenson duct

appears as a dimple just opposite of the the second upper molar

72

Inspection of buccal Mucosa

hold light in nondominant hand and tongue blade in other
separate areas
note color and pigmentation
inspect entire u shaped floor of the mouth
note parotid duct

73

Fordyce Granules

small isolated white or yellow papules may be noted on the cheeks, tongue, and lips.
these are insignificant

74

Inflammation and infection of nasal mucosa may be present with?

viral, bacterial or allergic rhinitis

75

Excessive clear, watery drainage suggest?

allergic rhinitis

76

Anosomia

decrease in smell, may occur with trauma, congestion, polyps or sinus infection

77

Recurrent strep infections are indications for consideration for removal of? and why?

Removal of tonsils because of the risk for rheumatic fever with resultant kidney or heart disease

78

Hemangioma

benign mass of blood vessels, present at birth and may expand with crying

79

Thumb sucking past the age of 6-7 may cause?

malocclusion of the teeth

80

Unilateral clear discharge that is unresponsive to treatment may indicate?

rare cerebrospinal fluid leak

81

Cough may be secondary to?

GERD

82

Common mouth and upper respiratory symptoms

facial pressure/headache/pain, snoring, sleep apnea, obstructive breathing, nasal congestion, epitaxis, halitosis, anosomia, cough, pharyngitis, dysphagia, dental aching, hoarseness, oral lesions

83

Abrupt loss of smell may indicate?

brain tumor

84

Ludwig Angina

swelling that pushes the tongue up and back and eventually causes airway obstruction

85

Torus palatinus

bony ridge running in the middle of the hard

86

Gustatory Rhinitis

clear rhinorrhea stimulated by smell and taste of food

87

In older adults, in the oral cavity a thinning of the soft tissue of the cheeks and tongue results in?

increased risk of ulcerations, infections and oral cancer

88

With advancing age, number of taste buds and production of saliva?

decreases

89

What age group is the obligatory nose breathers?

infants

90

When is the ability to smell fully developed?

at birth, but lack lining of cilia in nose

91

frontal and sphenoid sinuses appear by age?

3 years and continue to develop through adolescence

92

Taste is present at birth but salivation develops at age?

3 months

93

development of teeth, temporary and permanent begin?

in utero

94

teeth erupt in infants and toddlers between the age?

5 and 27 months

95

At what age do children start to loose deciduous teeth?

6 years of age

96

By what age are permanent teeth present?

12 to 13

97

The throat is the common channel for?

respiratory and digestive systems

98

Where does the throat begin?

inferior border of the soft palate and uvula

99

Tonsils

back of the throat between anterior and posterior pillars

100

What does the lymphatic tissues of the tonsils and adenoids provide?

immunological defense

101

Chronic infections of tonsils may cause?

hypertrophy and may produce chronic airway obstruction

102

Tonsilitis

inflammation of tonsils

103

Hypertrophy of the tonsils and adenoids may develop secondary to?

sinusitis or otitis (middle ear infection)

104

How many permanent teeth do we have?

32

105

How many anterior incisors in an adult?

8, have flat surfaces for biting

106

How many molars in adults?

12, biting and grinding food

107

the teeth contribute to?

grinding and mastication of food to prepare for swallowing.

108

Teeth has three layers, which are?

Crown, neck and root

109

crown has three layers

enamel, dentin, pulp

110

dentin has tubules that connect to?

nerve fibers

111

Which cranial nerves innervate secretions of major and minor salivary glands?

Cranial VII and IX

112

Saliva begins what process?

digestion, by releasing enzymes upon contact with food

113

Saliva protects the oral mucosa from?

heat, chemicals and irritants

114

Saliva's function is?

transmit taste information, rinses the oral cavity to maintain pH, provides lubrication for movement of food

115

Salivary production increases with?

smelling and seeing food, smoking, tasting, chewing, swallowing

116

xerostomia

decreased salivary flow, related to emotional response, aging, damage to glands and disorders

117

Three major salivary glands

parotid, submandibular, sublingual

118

blood supply to the tongue

lingual, exterior maxillary, and ascending pharyngeal arteries

119

Innervation of the tongue includes lingual nerve fibers from which cranial nerves?

CN V, VII, IX, X, XII

120

uvula

midline at the inferior portion of soft palate

121

roof of mouth contains two palates which are?

hard and soft

122

soft palate forms the?

uvula and separates mouth from pharynx

123

The floor of the mouth is highly vascular which allows?

rapid absorption of sublingual medications

124

The oral cavity is the structure for?

taste, mastication, and speech articulation

125

adenoids

lymphoid tissue located in the rood of the nasopharynx and laterally in the eustachian tube orifice

126

Sinuses

hollow, bony, air filled cavaties within the forehead and facial cavaties, lighten the weight of the skull and provide timbre adn resonance to the voice

127

Cranial nerve VII is responsible for? external movement of?

external movement of nose, vasodilatation, and mucus production

128

osteomatal complex

middle turbinate and middle meatus area

129

function of cilia?

trap particles and sweep them posteriorly to promote mucus drainage

130

Columella

divides the oval nares