Heart And Neck Vessels Assessment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Heart And Neck Vessels Assessment Deck (52):
0

Where is the heart and great vessels located?

Mediastinum between lungs and above the diaphragm from the center to the left of the thorax

1

What is the top of the heart referred to as?

Base: found at 2nd intercostal space at the sternal border

2

What is the bottom of the heart referred to as?

Apex: found in the fifth intercostal space midclavicular

3

What is included in the arterial great vessels?

Carotid arteries, aorta, pulmonary veins

4

What are the venous great vessels?

Jugular veins, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and pulmonary arteries

5

Where are the great vessels located?

Superior to the heart and then turn to the body part that they supply

6

What is the function of the atria?

Collect and pump blood into ventricles

7

What is the function of the ventricles?

Pump blood out to the lungs and body

8

What is the function of the septum?

Separates the left and right sides of the heart

9

What is the function of the two valves located on each side of the heart?

Open and close to allow blood to flow forward in one direction instead of going backwards during contraction

10

What is the function of the two atrioventricular valves?

Separate the atria from the ventricle

11

What is the function of the two semilunar valves?

Separate the ventricles from the great vessels

12

Where is the pulmonic valve located?

Lies between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery

13

Where is the aortic valve located?

Lies between the left ventricle and aorta

14

What are the three layers of the heart?

Endocardium: lines the inside of the heart chambers and valves

Myocardium: thick, muscular responsible for pumping action

Epicardium: muscle layer on outside of heart

15

What is the function of pericardium?

Encloses and protects the heart, two layers, contains a small amount of lubrication during pumping

16

What does the pericardium adhere to?

Great vessels, esophagus, sternum, and pleurae and anchored to diaphragm

17

Where do the coronary arteries arise from?

The base and branch out to the apex of the heart

18

Which arteries supply the left side of the heart?

Left coronary and circumflex

19

Which artery supplies the right side of the heart?

Right coronary artery

20

What can develop in coronary arteries that could lead to MI or angina?

Atherosclerotic plaques

21

What is the function and location of the SA node?

Small electrical impulse that fires in right atrium and generates the normal heartbeat

"Pacemaker"

22

Why are the cells in the SA node unique?

Posses automaticity ( property that allows the heart to generate its own pulse)

23

Which type of blood does the pulmonary artery carry?

Deoxygenated blood to the lungs. At the lungs, blood picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide

24

Which type of blood does the pulmonary vein deliver?

Oxygenated blood to the left atrium, to left ventricle then out to the body

25

Cardiac cycle

Continuous rhythmic movement of blood during contraction and relaxation of the heart

26

In a healthy person, the myocardial cells in the ventricle depolarize and contract during?

Systole

27

P wave

Spread of depolarization in the atria to cause atrial contraction

28

PR Interval

The time from firing of the SA node to the beginning of depolarization in the ventricle

Includes slight pause in the AV junction

29

QRS complex

Spread of depolarization and sodium release in the ventricles to cause ventricular contraction

30

T wave

Relaxation of the ventricles and repolarization of the cells, with a return of sodium and restoration of the resting state

31

Over stimulation of parasympathetic division can cause which kind of heart rate?

Bradycardia

32

Over stimulation of sympathetic division can cause which kind of heart rate?

Tachycardia

33

Stimulation of sympathetic nervous system triggers the release of?

Effect on heart?

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

Increase heart rate, contractility (to increase cardiac output), and blood pressure

34

Stimulation of the parasympathetic division acts indirectly through?

Baroreceptors and chemoreceptors

35

Baroreceptors in aortic arch and carotid sinus regulate what?

Heart rate

36

Chemoreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid body sense the change in?

pH, carbon dioxide, oxygen levels

37

Accumulated acid or depleted oxygen levels stimulate?

Effect on heart?

Chemoreceptors and increases heart rate

38

Parasympathetic division triggers a decreased heart rate by stimulating?

Vagus nerve which innervates the SA node to slow the natural pacemaker

Vagus nerve also slows conduction through AV junction which slows the heart rate

39

Atrial fibrillation

Many sites in the atria send signals to the ventricles, ventricles contract irregularly

40

Venous neck vessels reflect the pressure in the?

Right atrium because no valve exist between the right atrium and jugular veins

41

The jugular pulse has five pulsations resulting from?

The waves reflect?

Backward affects of activity in the heart

Atrial contraction and relaxation, ventricular contraction, passive atrial and ventricular filling

42

At what point does maternal blood volume increase?

First trimester and peaks around 40% approximately 1500 mL by 32nd to 34th week gestation

43

In pregnant women, cardiac output is decreased in which position?

Laying supine, impedes venous return
May be significant enough to drop blood pressure

44

Umbilical vein connects to the?

Inferior vena cava

45

Blood flow from umbilical artery through? And back to mother?

Inferior vena cava to right atrium to foramen ovale to left atrium (bypasses lungs) to descending aorta to umbilical arteries

46

By what age is child's heart similar to an adults?

7 and should be palpable in 5th left ICS at MCL

47

With aging, the left ventricular wall? Why?

Thickens because increased stress of pumping blood into stiffer vessels

48

When assessing for peripheral perfusion, level of consciousness and blood pressure are decreased what should the first intervention be?

Call rapid response team

49

Evaluate the significance of volume fluid overload by?

Auscultating lungs, measuring respiratory rate, and obtaining oxygen saturation rate

50

Premature onset of coronary artery disease is before what age for men? Women?

55 for men
65 for women

51

Risk factors related to family history

History of cardiovascular problems?
Who? What illness? When did they have it? How was it treated? Outcomes?

High blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, heart disease, obesity