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Flashcards in Eye Assessment Deck (100):
0

Function of eyelids

Loose mandible folds of skin that cover the eye, protect it from foreign bodies, regulate light entrance, distribute tears

1

Palpebral fissure

Almond shaped open space between eye lids

2

Limbus

Border between the cornea and sclera

3

Conjunctiva

Thin mucous membrane that lines the inner eyelid and also covers the sclera

4

Lacrimal apparatus

Consist of the lacrimal gland, punctum, lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct

Protects and lubricates the cornea and conjunctiva by producing and draining tears

5

Superior rectus

Elevates the eye upwards and adducts and rotates the eye medially

6

Inferior rectus

Rotates the eye downward and adducts and rotates the eye medially

7

Lateral rectus

Moves the eye laterally (toward the temple)

8

Medial rectus

Moves the eye medially

9

Superior oblique

Turns the eye downward and abducts and rotates the eye laterally

10

Inferior oblique

Turns the eye upward and abducts and turns the eye laterally

11

Eye has three layers of tissue

1. Outer fibrous layer contains sclera and cornea
2. Vascular middle composed of iris, ciliary body and choroids
3. Inner neutral layer is the retina

12

Sclera

Helps maintain the size and shape of the eye

13

Cornea

Allows light rays to enter the eye

14

Iris

Regulates the amount of light that enters the pupil

15

Pupil

Opens and closes to allow light into the eye

16

Pupil size can range from

3-5 mm

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Lens

Sits directly behind the pupil, refracts and focuses the light on to the retina

18

Ciliary body

Produces aqueous humor and contains muscle that controls the shape of the lens

19

Choroids

Network of blood vessels to the eye

Covers recessed portion of the eye

20

Interior eye has three chambers

Anterior, posterior and vitreous

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Anterior chamber

Space between the cornea in the front and iris and lens in the back

Contains aqueous humor; produced by ciliary body amount varies to maintain eye pressure

22

Posterior chamber

Starts behind the iris and goes to the lens

Filled with aqueous humor to help nourish the cornea and lens

23

Vitreous chamber

Adjacent to the inner retinal layer and the lens

Filled with vitreous fluid, gel like, holds retina in place and maintains shape of the eyeball

24

Retina

Innermost layer of eye, receives and transmit visual stimuli to the brain for processing.

Contains photoreceptors; rods and cones

25

Rods

Outer edge of retina, primary responsible for vision in low light and varying shades of black and white

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Cones

Concentrated centrally
Adapted to bright light and produces color and sharp images

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Optic disc

Opening for the optic nerve head

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Macula

Area with greatest concentration of cones

29

Pregnant women

Common problem is
dry eyes due to decreased conjunctival capillaries
Corneal curvature increases, loss of accommodation
Visual field changes may occur possibly the pituitary gland affecting the optic nerve
Decreased inter ocular pressure is significant if the woman has glaucoma
Chloasma may result from increased progesterone levels

30

Newborn and infants

Visual system is least matured compared to others
Vision reaches adult level by 4-5 years old

Newborns are sensitive to light and often keep eyes closed
Limited ability to focus but able to track at 3 months

31

In infants the pupils are?

Reactive to light
Blink reflex is intact
Corneal reflex is easily stimulated

32

Reflex tearing is present at birth but emotional tearing is present by?

3 months

33

Visual acuity ranges from ?

20/20 to 20/40 normally
Depth perception develops throughout childhood

34

How does the eye structure and vision change in older adults?

Eyelids droop
Eyes sit further back in orbit due to loss of subcutaneous fat
Conjunctiva are thinner and may appear yellow
Iris may have irregular pigmentation
Tearing decreases

35

Because pupil is smaller is older adults, there is a loss of?

accommodation, decreased night vision, and decreased depth of perception

36

In older adults, the lens?

Enlarges and transparency decreases, making vision less acute

37

Does gradual vision loss require emergent medical attention?

No, but is significant

38

Rapid assessment of the eye includes assessing for?

Foreign bodies, lacerations, hyphema, testing extraocular movements and examine the optic disc

39

Risk factors for eye problems?

Family history, trauma, illnesses, occupational hazard

40

Leading causes of new cases of blindness

Age related macular degeneration
Glaucoma
Diabetic retinopathy
Cataracts
Optic nerve atrophy

41

Diabetes mellitus increases risk for?

Diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, cataracts

42

Common eye symptoms

Pain, trauma, visual change, blind spots,floaters, halos, discharge, change in ADLs

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Loss of night time vision is associated with?

Optiathrophy, glaucoma and vitamin A deficiency

44

Discharge in eyes is associated with?

Inflammation or infection

45

Ophthalmoscope

Used to inspect interior ocular structures

46

In what order do you examine infected eye?

Last

47

Optic nerve II

Visual acuity
Visual fields
Fundoscopic examination

48

Optic nerve III

Occulomotor

Cordial fields of gaze
Eyelid inspection
Pupil reaction

49

Cranial nerve IV

Trochlear
Cardinal fields of gaze

50

Cranial nerve VI

Abducens

Cardinal fields of gaze

51

Visual acuity test include?

Near vision, distance vision, peripheral vision, and color vision

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Abnormal finding in Snellen's chart

Leaning forward, squinting, hesitation, misidentification or more than three of seven objects, or more than two line difference in eyes,larger number on bottom indicates diminished distance vision

53

Near vision is assessed with?

Jaeger test, or if it isn't available have the r dad magazine or newspaper

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Color vision is assessed with?

Ishihara cards or color bars on Snellen's chart

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Visual field

What in the environment is visual when the eye fixates on a stationary object

56

Confrontation test

Static or kinetic
Used to screen for visual field defects
Visual field is divided into four quadrants

57

Three basic test allows for examination of extraocular muscles

Corneal light reflex
Cover test
Cardinal fields of gaze

58

Corneal light reflex test for?

Strabismus

59

Cover test for?

Presence and amount of ocular deviation

60

6 cardinal fields of gaze

Allows nurses to detect muscle defects that cause misalignment or uncoordinated eye movement

61

Ptosis

Drooping eyelids

62

If patient reports dry eyes or eye fatigue, inspect?

Lacrimal apparatus

63

Suspect conditions for enlarged lacrimal gland?

Sarcoidosis disease or Sjögren's syndrome

64

Pterygium

Abnormal thickening of conjunctiva from limbus over the cornea

65

Scleral abnormalities include?

Jaundice, bluing, mad drainage

66

Cloudiness of lens can indicate?

Cataract which is associated with age, smoking, alcohol intake, and sunlight exposure

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Binocular vision develops between?

3 and 7 months

68

How do you assess vision in infants?

Testing for pupillary light reflex and observing behavior

69

How do you assess a toddlers visual acuity?

Allen's test
Normal finding in toddlers is 20/200 bilaterally

70

How do you assess vision in preschool age?

(3-5 years)
Snellen's E chart
Normal finding is 20/40

71

Arcus senilis

Grey/white circle that circumscribes the limbus and results from deposition of lipid is common cloudiness that appear around the corneas

72

Asthenopia

Eye strain
Common symptoms

fatigue, red eyes, eyes strain, pain in or around the eyes, blurred vision, headaches, rarely, double vision

73

Astigmatism

Abnormal curvature of the cornea prevents light from focusing on the retina. Images appear blurred

74

Myopia

Can see objects close up but difficulty seeing distant objects

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Hyperopia

Distant objects are seen clear and close up objects are blurry

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Presbyopia

Natural part of aging and affects near vision

77

Nystagmus

Involuntary rhythmic wobbling of the eyes

78

Strabismus

Cross eyed or wall eyed

Condition in which a person cannot align both eyes simultaneously

79

Jaundice

Yellowing of sclera, indicates liver disease

80

Iris Nevus

Affects one side, abnormalities in iris, pain and decreased vision may also have glaucoma on same side

81

Hyphema

Blood in anterior chamber of eye, blunt trauma

82

Bleparitis

Inflammation of the margin of the eyelid, anterior or posterior

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Chalazion

Cyst in the eyelid

84

Bacterial conjunctivitis

Should be suspected if there is yellow/green discharge, numerous follicles, constant burning, photophobia

85

Allergic conjunctivitis

Usually bilateral
Common with ectopic conditions
Slightly watery discharge and itching of the eye

86

Glaucoma

Disease of the optic nerve that involves loss of retinal ganglion cells. Significant risk factor is inter ocular pressure
Primary
Secondary
Developmental

87

Amblyopia

Lazy eye

Vision in one eye is reduced because the eye and brain are not working together

88

Exophthalmos

Protrusion of the eyeball anteriorly out of the socket, commonly from graves disease

89

Cataracts

Opacity of the crystalline lens of the eye

90

Hordelum

Caused by a blockage and infection of sebaceous gland at the base of the eyelash

91

Osteogenesis imperfecta

Blue sclera

92

Anisocoria

Unequal pupils

93

Argyle Robertson

Bilateral pupils accommodate but do not dilate

94

Key hole pupil

Gap appears in the iris

95

Horner's syndrome

Constricted pupil and dilation lag on affected side

96

Adie's pupil

Pupils are fixed, dilated, and tonic. Direct and consensual pupil reactions are weak or absent

97

Miosis

Pupils are constricted and fixed

Occurs with eye drops for glaucoma, iritis, brain damage to pons, narcotic drug use

98

Mydriasis (dilated fixed pupil)

Usually from stimulation of sympathetic nerves as a consequence of CNS injury, cardiac arrest, deep anesthesia, acute glaucoma, or recent trauma

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Oculomotor damage

Unilateral dilated pupil has no reaction to light or accommodation