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Flashcards in Thorax And Lungs Deck (79):
0

Function of upper airway?

Warms, moisturizes, and transport air to lower respiratory tract

1

The thoracic cage includes?

Sternum, clavicle anteriorly, scapulae and 12 vertebrae posteriorly, and 12 pair of ribs

2

Thoracic cavity includes?

Heart, lungs, thymus, distal part of trachea, and most of esophagus

3

What arteries supply blood to the chest?

Thoracic artery, subclavian artery, brachial artery and ancillary artery

4

Each lung has pulmonary arteries that supplies?

Deoxygenated blood for gas exchange

5

Spinous process of T1 usually correlates with?

First rib

6

Lower tip of scapula correlates with?

The 7th and 8th rib

7

Midsternal line

Center of the sternum

8

Midclavicular line

Extends down from the clavicle halfway between the sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joints

9

Anterior Axillary line

Extends from the top of the axillary fold when the arms are at the side

10

Vertebral line

Lies over the center of the spinous processes of the vertebrae

11

Scapular line

Originates from the inferior angle of the scapula and is parallel to the vertebrae line

12

Posterior axillary

Drops from the apex of the axilla and parallel to anterior axilla line

13

Each rib is divided almost in half by what?

an oblique fissure that runs from 6th rib MCL anteriorly to the T3 spinous process posteriorly

14

How many lobes are in the left and right lung?

Right has three and left has two

15

Horizontal fissure

Divides the upper and middle lobes of the lungs

16

The right upper lobe and the right middle lobe is the same size as the?

Left upper lobe

17

The left lung is narrower than the right because?

The location of the heart on the left displaces lung tissue

18

Base

Refers to the very bottom of lung fields

19

Apex

Very top of lung

20

Lungs should be auscultation from?

Apex to base

21

Anteriorly, the apex of the lung extends approximately?

2-3 cm above inner third of clavicle

22

The base of lung rest on the?

Diaphragm at the 6th rib MCL and the 8th rib midaxillary

Posteriorly, apex is near C7 and base is at T10
Three rib spaces below inferior tip of the scapula

23

The right main bronchus is _______ compared to the left?

Shorter, wider and more vertical

24

The trachea and bronchioles contain how much dead space?

150 mL

25

The structure of the right bronchus make sit more susceptible to when an endotracheal tube is inserted ?

Aspiration and intubation if an endotracheal tube is inserted too far

26

Narrowed bronchioles may lead to?

Wheezing

27

Why do breath sounds differ in trachea and bronchi?

Trachea is much larger and has wider airways

28

As the airways narrows, sounds become?

Softer, finer and more difficult to auscultate

29

Alveoli

Primary units In lungs that absorb oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide

30

When fluid fills the alveoli, what can be heard?

Fine crackles

31

Excessive fluid in the alveoli may lead to?

Airway collapse and decreased breath sounds

32

Visceral pleura

Lines the lungs

33

Parietal pleura

Lines the thoracic wall, mediastinum, and diaphragm

34

The pleural space does what?

Lubricates two surfaces, seals lungs open with negative pressure

35

The main trigger for breathing?

Increased carbon dioxide in the blood, decreased oxygen or increased acidity

36

Approximately how much air enters the lung in each breath?

500-800 mL

37

Pregnant women

Lower ribs flare as fetus grows
Tidal volume increases

38

What does the fetus depend in for oxygen exchange?

The placenta

39

When does surfactant production begin?

32 weeks gestation

40

After the umbilical cord is cut, what does the baby do?

Take first breath

41

The chest in the newborn is round and consistent with what?

The size of the head up to the age of two

42

In older adults, decreased function of cilia leads to?

Pooling of secretions

43

How are the alveoli affected in older adults?

Less elastic and more rigid, and lungs may become "stiff", respiratory strength decreases

45

If the patient has an acute shortness of breath, immediate assessments include?

Respiratory rate, pulse, blood pressure and oxygen saturation

46

Condition vs. Auscultation
Asthma

Wheezes

47

Condition vs. Auscultation
Atelectasis

diminished lung sounds in lower lobe

48

Condition vs. Auscultation
Bronchitis

occasional wheezing or fine crackles

49

Condition vs. Auscultation
COPD

Wheezes

50

Condition vs. Auscultation
Pneumonia

Wheezes, crackles or gurgles

51

Condition vs. Auscultation
CHF

Absent bases

52

Condition vs. Auscultation
Pleural Effusion

Absent over affected lung

53

Condition vs. Auscultation
Pulmonary Embolism

Clear or mild wheezes

54

Asthma

allergic hypersensitivity to allergens that produce broncho spasm
wheezes, mostly exhalation

55

Atelectasis

collapsed section of alveoli from immobility, obstruction, compression, or decreased surfactant

56

Emphysema

destruction of pulmonary capillary bed and alveoli creating large air sacs and bullae
barrel chest, cough, shortness of breath

57

Bronchitis

inflammation of bronchi that stimulate mucous glands. secretions may partially obstruct the airway
occasional wheezes, or fine crackles

58

Lobar pneumonia

alveoli become congested with bacteria and white cells causing consolidation

59

Pleural effusion

collection of fluid in the intrapleural space that compresses the lung tissue

60

pneumothorax or hemothorax

collapsed or blood filled lung

61

CHF

fluid overload and pulmonary congestion

62

TB

slow growing mycobacterium that may form lesions or cavities in the lung

63

Pulmonary embolism

blood clot in the lungs that causes shunting of the blood to atelactatic area

64

Flail chest

when multiple ribs are fractured, paradoxical movements of the chest may occur

65

Pectus Carinatum (pigeon chest)

sternum is depressed anteriorly, depressing the adjacent costal cartilages

66

Pectus Excavatum

funnel chest, depression in lower part of and adjacent to sternum. may compress heart and cause murmurs

67

Biot's respiration

irregular rhythm, severe brain damage

68

Cheyne-stokes respiration

normally in children and elderly, also terminal illness, renal failure, overdose, increased cranial pressure, heart failure

69

hypoventilation

rate below 10 bpm narcotic or anesthetic overdose, increased intracranial pressure

70

bradypnea

rate below 10 bpm narcotic overdose, diabetic coma, increased intracranial pressure

71

hyperventilation

rate greater than 24 extreme anxiety or fear, exercise, increased intracranial pressure

72

Children begin to use their intercostal muscles to breathe by what age?

6 to 7

73

nasal flaring is common in newborns because?

nose is often congested

74

crepitus around clavicles in newborn arises concern because?

may indicate pneumothorax, especially following forceps delivery

75

acrocynosis

cyanosis of hands and feet

76

APGAR scoring system measures?

Heart rate, respiratory effort, relfex irritability, color

77

vesicular

sounds are soft, low pitched and found over fine airways near the site of exchange

78

bronchovesicular

sounds are found over major bronchi that have fewer alveoli

79

bronchial

sounds are loud, high pitched, and found over the trachea and neck