ECG waveforms and cliques Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ECG waveforms and cliques Deck (24)
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1

P wave

Atrial depolarization

2

PR interval

Time for atrial depolarization and conduction of SA to AV node

(.12-.20 seconds)

3

QRS Complex

Ventricular depolarization

Atrial repolarization

(.06-.10 seconds)

4

ST segment

Ventricles depolarized

5

T wave

Ventricular repolarization

6

What is normal sinus rhythm?

Normal electrical conduction

between 60-100 bpm

7

What is sinus bradycardia?

Sinus rhythm

< 60 bpm

8

What is sinus tachycardia?

Sinus rhythm

> 100 bpm

9

What is sinus arrest?

Sinus rhythm

Occasional complete absence of P or QRS interval 

10

What is a Premature Atrial Contraction (PAC)?

Ectopic focus in atrium initiates impulse before SA node

**Usually harmless. > 9 = get a physician!**

11

What is Atrial Flutter

Ectopic Focus (1) - takes over normal pacemaker of the heart

Very rapid atrial tach 

F wave ("saw tooth pattern")

12

What is Atrial Fib?

Ectopic Foci (1+)

Atria depolarized 350-600x/min

"bouncy baseline"

13

What is a Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC)?

Ectopic focus (1) - premature ventricular depolarization

Bigeminy: every 2

Trigeminy: every 3

Couplet: 2 in a row

Unifocal PVC: look the same - coming from same spot

Multifocal PVC: look different - coming from different spots

14

What is Ventricular Tach?

Ectopic Focus (1)

3 or more PVCs at rate of > 150 bpm

**EMERGENCY: longer than 30 seconds = life threatening**

Common cause: MI, Cardiomyopathy, and Valvular Disease

 

 

15

What is Ventricular Fibrillation (v-fib)?

Ectopic Foci (1+)

Chaotic activity in ventricles

**EMERGENCY: pt in cardiac arrest!**

 

 

16

What is a 1st Degree Heart Block?

Consistent long PR interval

Consistent beat to beat

**No symptoms**

17

What is a 2nd Degree Heart Block - Mobitz Type I or Wenkebach?

progressively longer PR interval until one impulse DROPS

18

What is a 2nd Degree Heart Block - Mobitz Type II?

Consecutive normal PR intervals and then DROPPED segment

**No PT. Treat with meds or pacemaker**

19

What is a 3rd Degree (Complete) Heart Block?

Complete block of impulse for SA node

Atria and ventricles depolarizing independently

**EMERGENCY**

20

What causes ST Segment Depression?

- Subendocardial ischemia

- Dig toxicity

- Hypo or hyperkalemia

21

What causes ST segment eleveation?

Acute transmural infarction

22

What causes a T wave inversion?

- Occurs hours or days after MI

- May occur with R or L bundle branch blocks

23

If a patient has a PVC during treatment, what is the first thing you should do?

  • Make sure patient can rest on stable surface
  • Determine frequency of PVC's

24