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Primate Behavior 2 > Ecology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ecology Deck (62)
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1

what latitude range do most primates live in?

-10 degrees north and south of equator
-rarely dip into temperate zones

2

example of primate that lives in temperate zone

-japanese macaque
-eats bark and pinecones because food is limited in the winter

3

squirrel monkey - distribution

-amazon
-central america
-costa rica
LARGE DISTRIBUTION

4

cotton topped tamarin - distribution

-north western Colombia
SMALL DISTRIBUTION

5

uakari - distribution

-lives on 2 sides of amazon
-Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela
LARGE DISTRIBUTION

6

baboon - distribution

-subsaharan Africa
-South Africa
-successful species
LARGE DISTRIBUTION

7

geleta and hamadryas baboon - distribution

-central eastern Africa
SMALL DISTRIBUTION

8

talapoin monkey - distribution

-central western Africa
SMALL DISTRIBUTION

9

chimpanzee - distribution

-central Africa
-equator/rainforest
SMALL DISTRIBUTION

10

golden-lion tamarin - distribution

-Brazil
-endangered
SMALL DISTRIBUTION

11

owl monkey - distribution

-south america
LARGE DISTRIBUTION

12

nocturnal or diurnal foraging activity - prosimians vs monkeys

-prosimians: nocturnal
-monkeys: diurnal (except owl monkey - successful because there are no prosimians in south america)

13

Habitats with monkeys

1. Rainforest
2. Deciduous seasonal forest/temperate woodland
3. Montane forest
4. Grassland savannah/woodland mosaic-desert

14

rainforest habitat
-carrying capacity?

-equator
-highest carrying capacity

15

montane forest
-which monkey?

-mountain gorilla

16

grassland savannah
-which monkeys?
-problem?

-galago
-macaques
-vervet
-hamadryas baboon
-gelata baboon
**ground predator exposure

17

top canopy
-which monkey

-spider monkey

18

middle canopy
-which monkey

-capuchin (pushed intelligence to live here)

19

niches - categories

-insectivores
-sapivores
-frugivores
-folivores
-opportunistic omnivores

20

insectivores

-smaller primates

21

sapivores

-lemurs
-pygmy marmoset

22

frugivores

-orangutan
-pretty much all monkeys like fruit

23

folivores

-all primates
-especially spider monkey

24

opportunistic omnivore

-chimpanzees - predator for red colobus monkeys

25

George Schaller (1963)

-primate and field ecology research
-mountain gorilla

26

percent of leaves in diet - graph

-x axis: body weight
-y axis: percent of leaves in diet
-galago-->tamarin-->macaque-->chimp-->gorilla

27

adaptations for vegetarianism
-sportive lemur
-langur/howler
-colobus
-gorilla

-sportive lemur: copophagia
-langur/howler: elongated intestine
-colobus: sacculated stomach
-gorilla: long digestive tract

28

plant adaptations to limit consumption
-new leaves?
-sunlight?
-monkey examples (5)

-chemicals that must be tolerated by monkeys
-new leaves have more difficult to digest chemicals
-sunlight can increase chemicals
-howler monkey: can eat new leaves, red leaves and sun leaves
-bamboo and gentle lemur
-aye aye - coconuts and bark
-tarsier can spin head 180 degrees
-chimps and self-medication

29

extreme example of monkey adaptations to plant chemicals

-bamboo and gentle lemur
-bamboo-cyanide
-gentle lemur is a bamboo specialist; should be dead based on amount it consumes
-500 mg; 12x lethal dose

30

chimpanzees and self-medication

-eat certain plants to get rid of parasites