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Flashcards in Hormones and Behavior Deck (47)
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1

Hormones are elevated/altered by

-age
-ecological cues
-social factors
-trauma
-illness
-nutrition

2

3 kinds of spirits

1. animals
2. vital
3. natural
-the relationship between brain and behavior is regulated by "body humors" or hormones

3

Portal blood vessels
-connects what
-who discovered its function
-posterior pit?

-connects hypothalamus (brain base) to anterior pituitary
-Used to think the portal was for hormones in pituitary to fuse into the brain
-Geoffrey Harris proposed the opposite: hypothalamus makes releasing hormones go through blood vessels to pituitary - rest of body
-brain controls hormones
-posterior pit hormones don't require this

4

adrenal glad

-secretes cortisol
-stress hormone

5

CRH axis

-hypothal: CRH
-ant pit: ACTH
-adrenal: cortisol
-cortisol has negative feedback on the hypothalamus and ant pit

6

GnRH axis

-hypothal: GnRH
-ant pit: LH, FSH
-ovaries/testes: E and P/T
-E and P have negative feedback on hypothalamus and ant pit

7

gonads

-secrete testosterone (males)
-secrete E and P (females)
-reproduction hormones

8

changes caused by hormones

-acute changes
-chronic changes
-rhythmic changes (diurnal, monthly, annually)
-timing of puberty
-duration and success of pregnancy
-biology of aging (senescence) - aging clock

9

male reproduction characteristics

-dominance and aggression
-testosterone increases

10

activities that affect testosterone levels

-dominance: in higher ranking males T inc
-wounding/trauma T dec
-group size/group complexity - depends
-mating season - increase T
-presence of females

11

study of hierarchy and testosterone levels
-study system
-findings

-squirrel monkeys
-monkey winning squabble for higher rank had higher T levels

12

Coe study about Testosterone

-testosterone increases within 24 hours of pairing in squirrel monkeys

13

T daily rhythm in males

-rises at night - best time to study monkeys
-falls throughout the day

14

pattern of male sexuality in rhesus macaques

-males only produce active sperm during the months when females are actually fertile

15

pattern of male sexuality in male gorillas

-male libido is generally low
-females initiate most sexual contact

16

pattern of male sexuality in male chimpanzees

-male sexual motivation is high
-male initiates sexual contact

17

menstrual influences

-on male behavior and hormones
-on other females (synchrony)
-social cues
-ovariectomized (brought into estrus out of breeding season)
-estrogen facilitates
-progesterone inhibits
-attractiveness, receptivity, proceptivity

18

3 characteristics of estrus

-attractiveness
-proceptivity - female initiative
-receptibity - designed to facilitate copulation itself

19

phases of menstrual cycle

-follicular phase: follicle matures due to increased FSH from ant pit; estradiol increases
-Luteal: increasing estradiol causes LH surge; ovulation occurs; CL forms and makes progesterone; goes away if not pregnant

20

reproduction in marmosets and tamarins

-reproductive suppression
-social behavior and olfactory cues
-GABA can inhibit secretion of hormones at the hypothalamus level

21

detecting hormone levels

-blood
-saliva - 1/10
-urine - metabolites
-fecal - metabolites
-hair - longer time frame

22

lemur
-puberty
-gestation
-birth interval

-puberty: 1-2yr
-gestation: 2-4 mo
-birth interval: 1 yr

23

monkeys
-puberty
-gestation
-birth interval

-puberty: 3-4 yr
-gestation: 5-7 mo
-birth interval: 1-2 yr

24

apes
-puberty
-gestation
-birth interval

-puberty: 10-14 yr
-gestation: 8mo
-birth interval: 4-8 yr

25

humans
-puberty
-gestation
-birth interval

-puberty: 12-18 yr
-gestation: 9mo
-birth interval: 4 yr

26

mating/birthing times of year

-dry season: mate
-wet season: birth

27

behavioral changes during pregnancy

-lethargy
-sexual abstinence
-eating and drinking changes

28

B marriot

-studied changing associations and ranging
-observed that older females hang out with more females
-less play with age (pimparious females)

29

duration of pregnancy
-prosimians
-monkeys
-apes

-prosimians: 2-4 mo
-monkeys: 5.5-7 mo
-Apes: 8 mo

30

Twinning

-rare
-less common in apes than it is in humans
-1/60-80 births