Primate Behavior Flashcards Preview

Primate Behavior 2 > Primate Behavior > Flashcards

Flashcards in Primate Behavior Deck (27)
Loading flashcards...

3 disciplines to study primate behavior

-Ethology - naturalistic behavior; field work, lab; natural selection
-sociobiology - explains aspects of social behavior (in between CP and E)
-comparative psychology - underlying mechanisms; individual focus


Why be social - 2 views

-Ultimate view (big picture)
-proximate view (psychological, individual)


ultimate view of being social

-reproductive strategy
-predator defense
-raising offspring
-population dispersal


proximate view of being social

-fear reduction
-social bonding
-finding food


Solly Zuckerman
-study subject

-"The Social Life of Monkey's and Apes"
-study: watched baboons in the zoo
-determined that sexual attraction and dominance hierarchy were the driving forces of being social


T.C. Schneirla
-phrase he coined
-3 aspects of sociality

-"gregarious tendency" - monkeys are social because they are naturally so
-two aspects of sociality: Obligative and Facultative
-some animals have a predisposition to be social, others are solitary


Obligative sociality

-genetic aspect of being social


Facultative sociality

-learned aspect of being social


Characteristics of social groups

-number of adults
-type of dominance relations
-emigration patterns
-social structures


main way to describe social groups
-what is not a good way to describe social groups?

-social structures
-they have found that group size is not a useful attribute (used to say that group size inc as primates evolved, but this isn't necessarily true)


types of social structures

-solitary forager
-monogamous pairs
-polygenous - 1 male, multiple females
-multi-male/multi-female - 3 types: sexually segregated, age-graded, fission/fusion


Solitary social structure
-which primates (2)
-characteristics of females
-2 types of males

-mouse lemur, galago
-females are more social than males
-vagabond males: males that emigrate from group
-territorial males: must have access to females and keep out other males; drive out sons
-females in one territory are usually related


Robert Martin

-studied foraging patterns of mouse lemurs


P. Charles Dominique

-studied foraging patterns of galagos


Monogamous social structure
-which primates (5)
-sexual dimorphism
-who helps more?
-what is special about siamangs?

-marmoset, tamarin, gibbon, mentawai langur, siamang
-each family is territorial
-less sexual dimorphism
-paternal care
-both male/female offspring leave or assist in rearing siblings
-don't go through puberty until they leave the group
-siamangs - territorial calls; leave territory when old enough


One male, multi-female social structure
-which primates (6)
-sexual dimorphism
-langurs - 2 things are special about them
-person that studied baboons

-howler monkeys, patas monkeys, guenons, langurs, hamadryas and gelata baboons
-high sexual dimorphism - males establish harem and fight with other males
-langurs - infanticide and bachelor bands (sons that emigrate take over other male-dominated groups)
-females are related; daughters stay in group
-Gelata and Hamadryas baboon - social unit within sleeping herd
-Jancita Beehner


Jancita Beehner

-studied Gelata baboons in Sieme Mountains of Ethiopia
-baboons have periodic take over every 3-4 years
-if females are pregnant, new male will abort the baby


multi-male/multi-female social structure
-sexual dimorphism
-which primates?
-characteristics of structure

-ground-living OW monkeys
-sexual dimorphism
-more females than males in group
-adult male dominance heirarchy
-male emigration (sometimes females too)
-there are 4 variations: age-graded, multiple harems, sexually segregated, integrated


multiple harems
-which primates

-1 male, several females
-at night for sleeping
-hamadryas and gelata baboon


-which primates

-silver-backed gorilla


sexually segregated
-which primates

-males are antisocial, females stick together
-males satellite around females and come in to mate
-talapoin, lemur, squirrel monkey


-which pirmates

-males and females live together
-baboons, rhesus monkeys, macaques, gorillas


Robert Hinde

-British Ecologist
-studied what can be inherited that would determine the social group structure
-thought that over time, a pattern of interaction can be created
-predisposition influences relationships; larger category created


Hinde's development of social structures

genetic heritage-->individual predispositions-->interaction patterns over time-->social relationships-->social group structure


types of females in multi-male/multi-female social groups

-possessed female - male hamadryas will chase female in group if she tries to leave
-free female - dispersed; common in olive/anubis baboon


Hans Krummer

-studied hybrids of anubis baboons and hamadryas baboons - less accepting of posessiveness
-also put them in other opposite social male group; hamadryas didn't accept anubis; hamadryas became freer in anubis group


Squirrel monkey study

-different behaviors N and S of Amazon
-N: integrated; no avoidance; males dominant over females
-S: sexually segregated; female dominance over males; male avoidance
-mixed N males and S females; mostly incompatible, but one group did mate