What was the size of England’s population at the start of the 1400s? What percentage of this population lived in a) urban and b) rural areas? - Economy
At the start of the 1400s, England had a population of 2.2 million.
A) 10% of the population lived in urban areas.
B) 90% of the population lived in rural areas.
What were the main industries in urban areas? What examples are there of England’s largest cities at this time? - Economy
The main industries in urban areas included wool and cloth industries, mining tin/lead/coal, metalwork, leatherwork, shipbuilding.
London, Norwich, Bristol, York, Coventry
What was Henry VII’s economic policy? How was it influenced? - Economy
Henry VII had no specific policy for England’s economy, rather he aimed to improve his own finances. Henry’s economic acts were mainly influenced by lobbying by merchants with vested interests.
When did sheep farming begin to replace England’s agrarian economy? Why? - Economy
In the 1480s and 90s, sheep farming began to replace the agrarian economy in response to reduced profitability of arable farming. Sheep farming was way more profitable as wool was in demand for a booming cloth trade.
What two zones could England’s economy be divided into? What forms of agriculture were common in each zone? - Economy
England could be divided into the ‘Lowland Zone’ of the South East, and the ‘Highland Zone’ of the North West. The lowland zone was dominated by mixed farming, whilst the highland zone was common for pastoral farming.
What is ‘mixed farming’? What is ‘pastoral farming’ - Economy
Mixed farming is a system of farming involving the raising of livestock and arable farming.
Pastoral farming is a system of farming involving purely the raising of livestock for meat and animal by-products.
What was open-field husbandry? - Economy
Open-field husbandry is the system of a landowner granting common rights to peasants (tenants) who were able to farm strips of land.
What was enclosure? What did this change about farming? - Economy
Enclosure was the process by which landowners ended the common rights of tenants and altered the purpose of the land. This mainly involved changing the land from arable uses to pastoral farming.
What material drove the increase in enclosure? How? - Economy
The rise in profitability of wool in order to prop up the growing cloth trade led to the rapid shift to use of enclosure by landowners to increase their wealth.
What issues were there with enclosure? - Economy
Enclosure often meant that peasants (tenants) who farmed strips of land had their livelihoods removed from them by the landowner, leaving them impoverished as their common rights were extinguished.
How much of England’s foreign trade was cloth responsible for? - Economy
The cloth trade was responsible for 90% of England’s foreign exports.
By how much did the volume of cloth exports increase during Henry VII’s reign? - Economy
The volume of cloth exports is estimated to have increased by 60% during Henry’s reign.
What processes were involved with the cloth industry? What positives are there of these processes being used? - Economy
The cloth industry created businesses based around weaving, fulling and dyeing. These industries were often used to supplement agricultural work in rural areas by peasants.
What areas dominated the cloth industry? Give examples - Economy
Rural areas dominated the cloth industry, with smaller towns being extremely prosperous. East Anglia, West Riding of Yorkshire, LEWES IN SUSSEX very successful.
Who were the Merchants of the Staple? Where were they based? What led to their downfall? - Economy
The Merchants of the Staple were a company of merchants which controlled the trade of raw wool from England. Traded through Calais. When the wool trade declined, the influence of the MotS declined with it.
What city was the most important port of trade for England? Why - Economy
Antwerp was England’s most important city to trade with, as from there English cloth could be exported over Europe.
Who were the Merchant Adventurers? How did they use their status to their advantage? (2) - Economy
The Merchant Adventurers were England’s most influential trading company, dominating the cloth trade with Antwerp. They used their relationship with the crown to represent the industry’s commercial needs and negotiate international treaties using their expertise.
What group stopped the Merchant Adventurers from dominating European trade? How? - Economy
The Merchant Adventurers were prevented from dominating European trade by the Hanseatic League. This was because the league enjoyed specific privileges guaranteed by a treaty with Henry VII.
Why did Henry grant the Hanseatic League certain rights? - Economy
The Hanseatic League were granted special rights by treaty as he was fearful that the League would offer protection to the Yorkist claimant, Edmund de la Pole.
When did Henry grant the Hanseatic League trading rights by treaty? - Economy
Henry granted the League trading rights by treaty in 1504
What was the Hanseatic League? - Economy
The Hanseatic League was a group of city states which formed a commercial union in the 13th century. They aimed to dominate trade in the Baltic Sea and Northern Europe, and did so successfully.
What examples are there of industries other than cloth in England under Henry VII? - Economy
Tin mined in Cornwall, coal mined in the North East, iron ore mined in smelted in South East.
Of the coal mined in England, where did this go? (domestic and foreign) - Economy
Majority of coal from the Northeast was used in Newcastle and London to support growing industrial output there.
In terms of foreign coal exports, small export trade to Germany and the Netherlands.
When did Henry impose a trading embargo on Burgundy? What impact did this have on the cloth trade? - Economy
Henry imposed a trading embargo on Burgundy in 1493, which forced him to redirect the English cloth trade through the less prosperous port of Calais from Antwerp.
What were the impacts of the Treaty of Etaples in terms of the economy and trade? When was it agreed? - Economy
The Treaty of Etaples was agreed in 1492, agreeing a £5,000/year pension for Henry. ANGLO-FRENCH TRADE ALSO ENCOURAGED.
What were the Navigation Acts? When were they passed? - Economy
The Navigation Acts, passed in 1489 and 1485, were acts which dictated that certain foreign goods should only be imported by English ships with English crews. GASCONY WINE.
Who was John Cabot? What did he pioneer? - Economy
John Cabot was a merchant who was encouraged by Henry to become involved with exploration. Led the first major exploration of the new world encouraged by an English monarch.
When did John Cabot first sail on an exploration mission? What did he discover? - Economy
John Cabot sailed from England in 1497, where he discovered Newfoundland, off the coast of Canada. He remarked that there was extensive fishing grounds.
Which other explorer did Henry encourage to explore away from England? - Economy
Henry encouraged John Cabot’s son, Sebastian, to explore as well. He wanted to discover a passage towards what we now know as Asia.
What was the state of the price of goods throughout Henry’s reign? What disruption was there to this pattern? What happened to the size of wages? - Economy
During Henry’s reign, the price of goods remained steady. There was, however, a small rise in the 1480s. Wages appeared to remain steady in line with prices, meaning there was little financial stress on people.
What happened to the price of out of favour exports such as wool and grain in the 1490s? - Economy
Out of favour exports, such as wool and grain, appeared to dip in export price during the 1490s, as a result of potential farming profit falls.