Which group was at the height of society beneath the Monarch ? - Society
The highest group in society beneath the monarch were the great landowners and senior churchmen.
How had the Black Death changed society in England? - Society
As a result of 20-40% of the population dying from the Black Death, the labour market changed as peasants demanded higher wages. Social mobility also increased.
How many people made up the ‘nobility’? Why was this group important? What examples are there of Henry trusting this group? - Society
The nobility was made up of only around 50-60 people. Henry relied on this group to maintain control in regional (rural) areas. Henry trusted Lord Daubney and the Earl of Oxford.
Why did Henry not trust the nobility? How did he demonstrate this? - Society
Henry did not trust the nobility as a class as he was very suspicious of potential power grabs by the nobility against him. Henry, therefore, was cautious about creating new peerage titles.
What was bastard feudalism? Why was Henry wary of this? - Society
Bastard feudalism was the process by which wealthy magnates would recruit knights and gentlemen into their service to either undertake administrative or military roles. This could result in these men being used against the crown, making Henry fearful of its use.
How did Henry aim to maintain control over bastard feudalism through legislation? When? - Society
Henry passed acts of Parliament in 1487 and 1504 that legislated against retaining without licence granted by the monarch.
Whom was punished heavily by Henry’s legislation against retaining? What was their punishment? - Society
Henry’s legislation against retaining was significant in its punishing of Lord Bergavenny. He was fined £100,000 for illegal retaining.
How did Henry aim to maintain control over bastard feudalism through oaths? Why was this only partially successful? - Society
Henry made all peers and MPs swear an oath against illegal retaining in 1486, although this was often ignored as it didn’t set parameters for what constituted being illegal.
Who were the greater gentry? What is a major example of an individual from this class? - Society
The greater gentry were major landowners, who often sought to become knights in recognition of their social standing.
SIR REGINALD BRAY is a prominent example of this.
What roles were the greater gentry expected to undertake? - Society
The greater gentry were expected to undertake military roles when it came to conflict within this period.
How much of England’s land did Knights and Peers own collectively in Henry VII’s reign? - Society
Knights and Peers collectively owned around 15-20% of England’s land in this period.
What were ‘esquires’ and ‘mere gentry’? - Society
Esquires were the eldest sons of knights, younger sons of barons, magistrates and other wealthy individuals.
Mere gentry were those who were described as such by their associates/neighbours.
What sort of training did Henry VII appreciate for those whom he appointed into the positions of bishops? What examples are there of this? - Society
Henry VII tended to appoint those with legal training into roles within the clergy rather than theologians, such as Richard Fox (Bishop of Exeter/Lord Keeper of the Great Seal) and John Morton (Archbishop of Canterbury/Bishop of Ely).
What group of commoners was below the nobility, gentry and clergy? What professions did these include in URBAN AREAS? - Society
The ‘middling sort’ of commoners existed below the ‘mere gentry’. This included rich merchants and skilled craftsmen. Below these were shop owners and skilled tradesmen.
What professions did the RURAL ‘middling sort’ occupy? - Society
The rural middling sort comprised yeoman farmers, who farmed large estates for a large market economy.
Which group existed below yeomen in rural areas? What can this group of yeoman and husbandmen be collectively identified as? - Society
Husbandmen existed below yeomen, who typically kept smaller farms and were often employed by yeomen or gentry to do this. Collectively, these 2 groups can be identified as the peasantry.
A line between which areas divided agricultural practice in England? What practices existed either side of it? - Society
A line between the mouth of the Tees and Weymouth in Dorset divided the country’s agriculture. North-West of this line, pastoral farming occurred, whilst South-East of it mixed farming was used.
What small area of farming existed which deviated from the pastoral/mixed farming used in England? - Society
In the Welsh Marches and Herefordshire, a small area of grain and fruit farming existed.
What happened to living conditions and real wages in the 15th century? - Society
During the 15th century, the quality of life for poorer people appeared to improve, whilst real wages (the value of money receive compared to the prices of goods) rose.
When did the Yorkshire Rebellion occur? What caused the rebellion? - Society
The Yorkshire Rebellion occurred in 1489, prompted by a demand from Henry through parliament for increased taxation in order to finance the protection of Brittany from France.
Describe the events of the Yorkshire Rebellion - Society
After having been asked by his tenants to negotiate an exemption from the tax, the Earl of Northumberland failed to do so. He was murdered by his tenants as a consequence, yet this may have been fuelled by his choice to support Henry. The rebels were eventually defeated by Earl of Surrey at York, with Surrey later given magnate control of the North.
When did the Cornish Rebellion occur? What caused the rebellion? - Society
The Yorkshire Rebellion occurred in 1497, caused by Henry VII’s demands for additional taxation in order to finance an invasion of Scotland.
Describe the events of the Cornish Rebellion - Society
Feeling as though they shouldn’t be taxed for such a distant conflict, the rebels marched all the way to Blackheath outside of London unopposed. 15,000 rebels engaged in the Battle of Blackheath, although Henry diverted troops away from Scotland, led by Lord Daubney, to prevent a widespread revolt. Executed the leaders of the rebellion.
When was the Battle of Blackheath? - Society
The Battle of Blackheath happened on the 17th June 1497.
Which of the 2 rebellions (Yorkshire or Cornwall) posed a greater threat to Henry? Why was this? - Society
Arguably Cornwall posed a greater threat. This due to the number of people involved (15,000), the fact that the rebels marched unopposed to Blackheath (lack of rural control) and that the rebellion was exploited by Perkin Warbeck.