When did the Hundred Years War take place from-to? Who was it between? - Foreign Relations
Conflict which ebbed and flowed between 1337-1453. Between France and England.
What were Henry’s main reasons for pursuing a peaceful foreign policy? (3) - Foreign Relations
Henry’s main reason for pursuing a peaceful foreign policy was to maintain national security, ensure the recognition of the Tudor Dynasty and defend English trading interests.
When did the French invasion of Brittany begin? Why did Henry feel he needed to be involved in this? - Foreign Relations
The French invasion of Brittany began in 1487, with Henry involving England as he felt an obligation to the Bretons after he spent time at their court and that any invasion of Brittany may have presented a direct threat of invasion of England by France.
When was the Treaty of Redon agreed? Who between? What did this agree? - Foreign Relations
The Treaty of Redon was agreed in 1489 between England and Brittany to agree for a small English militia to defend Brittany from total French invasion.
How was Emperor Maximilian of the HRE involved in the French invasion of Brittany? - Foreign Relations
Emperor Maximilian had conducted a marriage-by-proxy to Duchess Anne of Brittany, meaning that he clearly didn’t want Brittany to fall under French control.
Who was the ruler of Brittany? How had this person become ruler? - Foreign Relations
Brittany was, at the time, ruled by Anne, Duchess of Brittany. She had come to power following her father’s death, with her being her father’s only heir.
What turn of events left Henry’s English army isolated in Brittany? - Foreign Relations
Henry’s English army was left marooned in Brittany after Duchess Anne decided to marry Charles VIII of France, deciding it was pointless to engage in prolonged conflict.
How did Henry manipulate the French, leading to financial gain? - Foreign Relations
Henry launched an invasion of France in 1492 when France was gearing up for an invasion of Italy. Rightly assuming that France would seek a peaceful solution to allow this, France negotiated a £5,000/year pension for Henry to compensate him for military costs.
What Treaty resolved the English Invasion of France? When was this signed? What 2 things did this negotiate for Henry’s benefit? - Foreign Relations
The Treaty of Etaples resolved the English invasion of France. Signed in 1492, this negotiated a £5000/year pension for Henry to compensate military costs. Also forced Charles VIII to withdraw support for Perkin Warbeck.
Where did the majority of England’s trade come between? How was this important to Henry’s attitude to foreign policy? - Foreign Policy
The majority of England’s trade was in the form of exports through Burgundian ports such as Antwerp and Bruges. This meant it was important for positive commercial ties and good relationships between the two.
What complicated relations between England and Burgundy? - Foreign Policy
The fact that Margaret of Burgundy, sister of Richard III, was a hugely powerful figure in Burgundy complicated relations. Margaret offered hospitality and patronage to Warbeck and Simnel to try to damage Henry’s authority.
What actions did Henry take to punish the Burgundians for their patronage and hospitality to pretenders to the throne and other claimants? When? - Foreign Policy
In 1493, Henry decided to place an embargo on trade between the two nations, meaning that England’s major exports were stopped as a result of these restrictions.
When was the Intercursus Magnus agreed? Who between? What did this agree? - Foreign Policy
The Intercursus Magnus was agreed in 1496 by England and Burgundy following Warbeck leaving Burgundy. This normalised trading relations between the two.
What treaty agreed the Intercursus Malus? WHEN? What did this aim to do? Why was this not successful? - Foreign Policy
The Treaty of Windsor agreed that English merchants in the Netherlands would have advantageous trading positions over Burgundian merchants. Agreed in 1506. However, never came into practice and trade continued on basis of Intercursus Magnus.
Which Yorkist claimant was handed over to Henry as a result of the Treaty of Windsor? How did this benefit Henry? - Foreign Policy
The Treaty of Windsor (1506) agreed that the Earl of Suffolk, Edmund de la Pole, would be handed over to Henry. This consolidated Henry’s position as King of England as it reduced external threat to his throne.
When was the Treaty of Medina del Campo signed? What did it agree? Which Spanish Monarchs agreed it? - Foreign Policy
The Treaty of Medina de Campo was signed in 1489 by Ferdinand and Isabella. Agreed mutual protection between ENG and SPA, agreed neither nation would harbour rebels or pretenders and also for a marriage alliance between Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon. Also agreed low customs duties on trade between the two.
What issues were there with the details of the Treaty of Medina del Campo and its implementation? - Foreign Policy
Arrangements in terms of the royal marriage were difficult to ratify, with Ferdinand reluctant to allow Catherine to marry Arthur whilst Warbeck was a threat to the throne. Additionally, the size of the dowry was disputed.
When were Catherine and Arthur eventually married? What happened a year later? - Foreign Policy
Catherine and Arthur were married in 1501, however, Arthur died in 1502, complicating Henry’s foreign relations.
What Spanish political event completely changed Henry’s foreign policy in 1504? - Foreign Policy
Isabella, wife of Ferdinand died, and the throne was seized by Ferdinand’s daughter, Juana, and her husband, Philip of Burgundy. Henry decided to support JUANA AND PHILIP, angering Ferdinand.
What coincidental circumstances led to the agreement of the Treaty of Windsor? When? - Foreign Policy
In January 1506, Juana and Philip were shipwrecked in England, and took refuge at Henry’s court. During this time, Henry agreed the Treaty of Windsor.
What was agreed by the Treaty of Windsor in terms of Burgundy and Spain? - Foreign Policy
B - Agreed the Intercursus Malus. Overturned the Earl of Suffolk to Henry’s control. Agreed a marriage between Henry and Philip’s sister which never materialised.
S - Henry agreed to formally recognise Juana and Philip as the rulers of Spain, strengthening their claim to the Spanish throne.
Why was Henry’s decision to support Philip and Juana not overly successful? When did this error come to light? - Foreign Policy
Philip died later in 1506, with Ferdinand again seizing the throne and angry about Henry supporting Juana and Philip 2 years previously in their bid to originally seize the throne from him.
What impacts did Ferdinand’s return to the throne in 1506 have on Henry’s foreign policy? - Foreign Policy
Henry was left diplomatically isolated from Spain having opposed Ferdinand in the previous fight for the Spanish throne. Ferdinand also blocked the marriage between Prince Henry and Catherine of Aragon so that it wouldn’t happen in Henry VII’s lifetime.
How did the actions of James IV anger Henry VII in 1495? - Foreign Policy
James IV offered hospitality to Perkin Warbeck at his court, as well as a marriage to James’ cousin.
When did James encourage Warbeck to invade England? What impacts/repercussions did this have on Henry? - Foreign Policy
James encouraged Warbeck to invade England in 1496 with the help of a small force, although unsuccessfully. Henry retaliated by launching an invasion of Scotland, financed by extraordinary revenue. This contributed to the Cornish Rebellion of 1497.
When did the Cornish rebellion occur? - Foreign Policy
The Cornish Rebellion happened in 1497.
What happened to Anglo-Scottish relations from 1498 onwards? What was a result of this? - Foreign Policy
The relations between the 2 states improved significantly. A result of improved Anglo-Scottish relations was that the Treaty of Perpetual Peace was agreed in 1502, agreeing for Henry’s daughter, Princess Margaret to marry James IV, securing a political alliance.
When was the Treaty of Perpetual Peace signed? - Foreign Policy
The Treaty of Perpetual Peace was signed in 1502.
Who was in charge of the Governance of Ireland? Why was this individual feared by Henry VII? - Foreign Policy
Ireland was governed by the Earl of Kildare, known as the ‘Uncrowned King of Ireland.’ He was feared by Henry as he had Yorkist sympathies, even supporting Perkin Warbeck and Lambert Simnel.
How was the Earl of Kildare’s Yorkist sympathies made the most obvious? When? - Foreign Policy
The Earl of Kildare was very blatant with his Yorkist sympathies by crowning Lambert Simnel, then pretending to be the Earl of Warwick (a Yorkist claimant) as King of Ireland.
CROWNED IN 1487.
How did Henry retaliate against Kildare’s growing threat? - Foreign Policy
Henry stopped relying on the Irish aristocracy to rule Ireland, instead appointing his infant son, Prince Henry as Lieutenant of Ireland.
Who was Prince Henry’s deputy in Ireland? What is his most notable legal achievement to consolidate English rule in Ireland? When was this achieved? - Foreign Policy
Prince Henry’s deputy in Ireland was Sir Edward Poynings. Ponyings forced the Irish Parliament to pass “Poynings’ Law” in 1495, which stated that the Irish Parliament could pass no law without English approval.
Who did Henry later entrust to rule Ireland? Why was this eventually unsustainable for Henry? - Foreign Policy
Henry decided to withdraw control of Ireland from the Earl of Kildare and enforce law through Prince Henry and a supplied force of troops.
This policy eventually became too expensive to continue to pursue in light of the Scottish invasion of England in 1496.
Following the abandonment of ‘Rule of the Pale,’ what policy did Henry use to govern Ireland? Why was this successful? - Foreign Policy
After ‘Rule of the Pale’ was abandoned in 1496 (and Poynings was recalled), Henry reverted to using the Earl of Kildare to rule Ireland. This was more successful now as Kildare had no benefit of supporting Yorkists, so loyally served Henry.
What benefits were gifted to Prince Arthur as heir to the throne? - Foreign Policy
Arthur received an education thought fitting of a Prince in foreign languages, classics, music, religion and in the methods of court. Also given his OWN COURT AT LUDLOW.
When did Henry VII die? How was his death politically dealt with? - Foreign Policy
Henry VII died on 23rd April 1509.
Margaret Beaufort, Bishop Fox and Richard Weston were keen to distance themselves from Henry’s harsh regime and position themselves around Henry VIII. Empson and Dudley were not and subsequently arrested.