How did Richard III rise to the throne, and in suspicious circumstances? - Pre 1485
Richard III (Duke of Gloucester), acting as protector to Edward V in 1483, imprisoned Edward and his younger brother, Richard, in the tower and probably had them murdered. Act known as USURPATION.
On what date was the Battle of Bosworth? - Bosworth
22nd August 1485
Through whom did Henry VII’s claim to the throne come? - Pre 1485
Henry’s claims came through a subsequent marriage of John of Gaunt (creating the Beaufort family) and an illegitimate child resulting from Owen Tudor and the wife of Henry V, Catherine of Valois.
Why was Henry VII’s claim to the throne weak? - Pre 1485
Henry’s claim to royalty came through an illegitimate child of the wife of a monarch (through a WOMAN) and also through a very weak claim to John of Gaunt. Both claims were incredibly tenuous.
How did the balance of Bosworth tilt in Henry’s favour? - Bosworth
Having been under pressure of attack from Richard’s forces and those of the Stanley’s, Thomas Stanley, Henry’s stepfather, decisively changed sides and forced his troops on Richard, leading to his demise.
Who proclaimed Henry to be King at Bosworth? - Bosworth
Lord Thomas Stanley, his stepfather.
When did Henry arrive in London? How did Henry attempt to gain the approval of the public after Richard III’s death and when? - Consolidation
Henry arrived in London on 3rd September 1485.
He wooed the public with pageantry and ceremony.
Why is it no surprise that Henry was accepted as King following the death of Richard? - Consolidation
By the time of Bosworth, Richard had become so unpopular due to his cruel ways and his usurpation of his nephew that the public were happy he had been deposed and it mattered not who his replacement was.
Henry’s upbringing was not to be a ruler. Why? - Pre 1485
When he was 14, Edward IV became king again following victory in a battle in the Wars of the Roses. Henry was forced into exile, fearful of execution, as a fugitive in Brittany, where he lived around the court.
How might Henry’s experience of the court at Brittany have benefitted him? - Pre 1485
Henry was able to observe the inner workings of the court - both how a court should and shouldn’t be run. He was paid little attention so could slip under the radar.
How was Henry’s position as an exile, in fear of capture, beneficial in shaping his character? - Pre 1485
Henry was able to act very secretively, hiding his thoughts and feelings as well as developing that lack of trust which marked his rule as being ruthless and calculating in his decision making.
When did Henry date his reign from in his first Parliament? Why did he do this? - Consolidation
Henry dated his reign from the 21ST AUGUST 1485, one day before Bosworth to effectively brand anyone who opposed him as a traitor.
How did Henry maintain the loyalty of supporters at Bosworth? Give examples. - Consolidation
Henry awarded 11 knighthoods, giving other titles to notable supporters (made William Stanley Lord Chamberlain, made his uncle Jasper Tudor Duke of Bedford).
How did he deal with Earl of Warwick and Elizabeth of York? - Consolidation
Henry detained both of these Yorkists, imprisoning the Earl of Warwick permanently, who could be seen to have a greater claim than himself. He later married Elizabeth to unite the 2 roses.
How did Henry reward his supporters in terms of Government? - Consolidation
Henry made Sir William Stanley his Lord Chamberlain, effectively the head of his household government. Sir Reginald Bray made Chancellor of Duchy of Lancaster.
On what date was Henry’s coronation? - Consolidation
30th October 1485
On what date was Henry’s first Parliament? - Consolidation
7th November 1485
What was the significance of having his first parliament after his coronation? - Consolidation
Having his first parliament after the coronation was significant as only the King could call parliament, demonstrating how he was the monarch based on hereditary right and not due to parliamentary approval.
What were acts of attainder? How were they used? - Consolidation
Acts of Attainder were acts passed by parliament at the King’s request to remove all titles and lands from an individual (who had been disloyal to Henry), as well as to disinherit their heirs. All went to the Crown.
When did Henry marry Elizabeth of York? Why was it important this was after his coronation as King? - Consolidation
Henry married Elizabeth in January 1486.
By waiting until after his coronation to marry her, he ensured that any claim to the throne was made through him, and not dismissed as due to him being married to the daughter of Edward IV.
What was the political benefit of Henry and Elizabeth’s marriage in 1486? Who was the living embodiment of the Tudor rose? - Consolidation
Henry’s marriage to Elizabeth signified the unification of the houses of York and Lancaster and seal the end of the Wars of the Roses. The Tudor rose was created as a result.
Prince Arthur, the child of Henry and Elizabeth, was the embodiment of the Tudor Rose.
When did the Lovell rebellion take place? Who assisted him? Where was this rebellion? - Consolidation
The Lovell Rebellion, led by Viscount Lovell, occurred in Easter 1486, in the traditional Yorkist heartland of the North Riding of Yorkshire. Assisted by Humphrey Stafford.
Why did the Lovell rebellion fail? How were the perpetrators dealt with? - Consolidation
The Lovell rebellion lacked any sort of foreign support and, crucially, drew little support from traditional Yorkist heartlands (NRoY/Midlands).
Henry failed to capture Lovell at the time, so he lived, but Humphrey Stafford was executed, perhaps setting an example for other rebellions.
When did the Lambert Simnel conspiracy occur? Who did he draw patronage from and in what form? Who was his key Yorkist supporter? - Consolidation
The Lambert Simnel conspiracy happened in 1487.
He drew patronage from Margaret of Burgundy, the sister of Richard III. She supplied a force of mercenaries to help their cause.
Simnel was also aided by John de la Pole, a Yorkist claimant who was Richard III’s heir.
Who was Lambert Simnel? What was the issue with his supposed identity? - Consolidation
Simnel was a pretender to the throne, posing as the Earl of Warwick.
Henry had the ACTUAL Earl of Warwick imprisoned, so in response to this threat exhibited the detained Warwick.
How did Henry attempt to deal with the threat posed by Simnel PRIOR to Simnel’s arrival? - Consolidation
Henry took the risk of reinstating the Earl of Northumberland, a Yorkist sympathiser, into power in the North of England to prevent JDLP and Simnel from raising an army of Richard III’s supporters.
When was the Battle of Stoke field? - Consolidation
The Battle of Stoke field took place on the 16th June 1487.
What happened to Simnel and Earl of Lincoln (JDLP) after the Battle? - Consolidation
Simnel was at first imprisoned, but Henry later showed mercy, employing him in the kitchens of the royal household.
Earl of Lincoln was killed in battle, crucially removing a major threat to Henry.
Why was Henry nervous about the outcome of Stoke Field? Why did the Yorkist forces not prevail? - Consolidation
Henry was nervous about his chances at Stoke Field as he was wary of the fact he could be double crossed by Yorkists now fighting for the Tudor cause.
Yorkist side crucially could not add to their Burgundian mercenaries with English support, therefore lacking the power to defeat Henry.
Who was Perkin Warbeck? What ability made Warbeck such a threat? - Consolidation
Perkin Warbeck was a cloth trader from Flanders, who, as a pretender to the throne, posed as Richard, Duke of York.
Warbeck’s ability to draw patronage from foreign rulers was crucial to his threat.
Where did Warbeck draw his patronage from? - Consolidation
Warbeck was able to draw patronage from France, Ireland, Scotland, England (Cornwall), and crucially from Margaret of Burgundy, who trained him in the ways of court and being a Yorkist prince.
Who did Warbeck use as his accomplice in Henry’s government? What impact did this have? How did Henry deal with this? - Consolidation
Warbeck had recruited Sir William Stanley, Henry’s Lord Chamberlain, to aid his cause as an imposter. This caused Henry to become reclusive, paranoid and untrusting of close allies. He later executed Stanley.
How was Warbeck pushed out of Scotland and into Henry’s control? - Consolidation
After Warbeck had failed to infiltrate England, Henry negotiated a treaty which would see his daughter, Margaret, marry King James IV of Scotland. This sacrificed Warbeck’s sanctuary, who fled to England. He was later captured by Henry in 1497.
How did Henry deal with Warbeck initially and then subsequently? - Consolidation
Initially, Warbeck was imprisoned in the tower, but allowed to live. He was however, later, accused of conspiring with the Earl of Warwick in 1499 and both were executed.
When did the Perkin Warbeck imposture last from and until? - Consolidation
Who was the Earl of Warwick? How did Henry deal with his threat to the throne? - Consolidation
The Earl of Warwick was Edward IV’s nephew, and the most obvious Yorkist claimant, although only a child.
Henry imprisoned him after Bosworth and kept him confined most of his life. He accused him of plotting with Warbeck in 1499 and was executed.
Who were Edmund and Richard de la Pole? Where did each of them make their threat from? - Consolidation
Edmund and Richard were younger brothers of the Earl of Lincoln.
Edmund had been forced into exile at court of Emperor Maximilian and Richard also spent time abroad.
How did Henry deal with the threat of Edmund and Richard de la Pole? - Consolidation
Edmund spent time with Yorkist sympathiser and Henry’s rival, Margaret of Burgundy, who provided sanctuary. However, the Treaty of Westminster (1506) saw that he was overturned to Henry and he was imprisoned in the tower.
Richard remained exiled in France, and was killed in 1525 fighting for French forces.