What were the 3 main functions of Henry VII’s council? - Government
- To advise the King
- To administer the realm on behalf of the King
- To make legal judgements
What 3 groups of people were councillors for Henry VII? Give examples of each - Government
- Nobility (Lord Daubney and Lord Dynham)
- Churchmen (John Morton and Richard Fox)
- Laymen - Gentry/Lawyers (Sir Reginald Bray and Edmund Dudley)
Who was John Morton? - Government
An able churchman and lawyer who had previously supported both Lancastrians and Yorkists. However, worked against Richard III and was later promoted to be Archbishop of Canterbury under Henry VII.
What was a magnate? - Government
A high ranking member of the nobility.
Who was Sir Reginald Bray? - Government
One of Henry VII’s most faithful servants, helping him to raise funds prior to Bosworth. Later made Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and also the head of the Council Learned.
What was the Great Council? What issues was it concerned with? - Government
The Great Council was a gathering of the House of Lords without the Commons, dealing with relating to war or rebellion.
How many times did the Great Council meet during Henry’s reign? What was Henry’s intended purpose for the great council in terms of the nobility? - Government
The Great Council met only 5 times during Henry’s reign.
The Great Council was intended to bind the nobility to key decisions on the issue of national security.
What was the Council Learned and what was its function? - Government
An offshoot of the King’s council operated by top legal individuals. Intended to exploit Henry’s prerogative rights, mainly through the enforcement of bonds and recognisances on nobles in order to maintain their loyalty.
Why was the council learned seen as a secretive body? - Government
Seen as secretive due to its separation from all recognised courts of law, meaning that no one prosecuted in there had any chance for appeal.
Who was Richard Empson? - Government
Empson was an ambitious lawyer and bureaucrat who aided Bray in his running of the Council Learned. Ruthless.
When did Reginald Bray die? Who was he replaced by? - Government
Reginald Bray died in 1503, replaced as head of the Council Learned by Edmund Dudley.
What was seen as the centre of Henry’s government? What characteristics did this area have? - Government
The centre of Henry’s government was his Court, which was magnificent and opulent in order to show off his wealth and power.
What were prerogative rights? - Government
Describes the powers at the disposal of the monarch without the permission of parliament, granted through the role of being the monarch.
What was the political aspect of the court known as? What was its purpose? Who was part of it? - Government
The political area of the court was known as the Chamber, which was the private areas of the King’s court. Key for administration. Contained King’s key advisors and servants, presided over by the Lord Chamberlain.
Who was Henry VII’s Lord Chamberlain? What saw his removal from this role and WHEN? - Government
Henry VII’s Lord Chamberlain was Sir William Stanley, his step-uncle. Replaced after his implication within the Perkin Warbeck imposture. This happened in 1495.
Following the Perkin Warbeck imposture, what alteration did Henry make to his chamber? - Government
Henry created a new, privy chamber, where the King could retreat to be surrounded by his closest servants. Made it more difficult for out of favour courtiers to regain the King’s trust.
What were the 2 main functions of Henry VII’s Parliament? How many Parliaments did Henry call throughout his reign? How were they spaced in his reign? - Government
- Pass laws
- Grant taxation to the crown
Henry called 7 parliaments during his reign, with 5 in the first 10 years and 2 in the last 14.
What was the purpose of Henry’s early Parliaments? What examples are there of these purposes? - Government
Henry’s first parliaments were concerned with taxation and the consolidation of his power.
Henry passed multiple acts of attainder to mitigate the power of the nobility, and also was granted tonnage and poundage for life.
What examples of Parliament’s financial interventions are there? - Government
First parliament granted tonnage and poundage for life, other parliaments granted extraordinary revenue to deal with conflict eg. The Scottish Rebellion.
What was extraordinary revenue? What was its most common form of payment? - Government
Extraordinary revenue is taxation granted by parliament in times of emergency, usually in terms of conflict. Usually paid in the form of fifteenths and tenths, taxes on goods of 1/10 in urban areas and 1/15 in rural.
Who did Henry rely on to maintain law and order domestically? Why did he have to strike a balance when maintaining law and order? - Government
Henry relied on high ranking members of the nobility quashing any rebellions on his behalf. Had to ensure nobles didn’t become overly powerful and risk any challenges to his own power.
What was Magnate control? Given there was no magnate control in the North, who did he place there? Why was this risky? - Government
Magnate control was where wealthy and powerful nobles oversaw law and order of regions at the discretion of the King.
Henry placed the Earl of Surrey in the North after the murder of the Earl of Northumberland. Surrey had been imprisoned as a supporter of Richard III, and was in an area of Yorkist support. However, he was loyal to Henry, providing 10 years of service in the North.
What were Justices of the Peace? What group of society did most JPs come from? - Government
Unpaid individuals at local level who maintained law and order in rural areas. Met 4 times a year.
Mainly upper classes who did unpaid work in the hope of reaching a higher ranking office in the future.
What were JPs responsible for? - Government
JPs oversaw the administration of tax assessments, alehouses, complaints against local officials and maintenance of law and order.
What were bonds and recognisances? How did Henry use them to maintain loyalty of the nobility? - Government
Bonds and recognisances were strict financial penalties imposed on the nobility, which would be triggered if they went against a formal agreement which guaranteed loyalty to the King. Could cause financial ruin to a noble.
What legal area did Church Courts have jurisdiction over? - Government
Church courts oversaw the prosecution of the clergy, church admin, ‘moral’ hearings, confession and marriage issues.
What were the 2 types of local courts? What legal areas did they have jurisdiction over? - Government
Manor courts - oversaw issues between landholders and tenants, use of common land.
Borough courts - medieval trading standards, specific judicial rights granted by royal charter.
What legal areas did King’s county courts have jurisdiction over? - Government
Held assizes twice a year to deal with major criminal and civil cases, held quarter sessions for JPs to oversee slightly less important criminal and civil cases.
What legal areas did King’s common law courts have jurisdiction over? - Government
Dealt with common pleas and civil cases, issues concerning royal revenues.
What legal areas did chancery and other equity courts have jurisdiction over? - Government
Chancery and equity courts exercised jurisdiction on basis of equity with a strict use of common law.
How did Henry use Crown lands to improve royal finances through administrative changes? - Government
Henry altered the system of collection of rents from crown lands to be done through the Chamber rather than the relatively inefficient collection methods of the Court of the Exchequer.
How did Henry make money from the crown lands? - Government
Henry rented out crown lands that he owned, either genuinely or through seizing of lands by acts of attainder/heirs in minority, to nobles.
What was wardship? How was this often overturned? - Government
Wardship was the act of the crown taking temporary ownership of lands which were owned by people in minority. Often had to be overturned through the payment of an additional sum for the initial owner to regain the land.
What was feudal aid? - Government
Feudal aid was the right by which the crown could impose additional taxes on tenants for the knighting of a Lord’s eldest son, the marrying of a Lord’s daughter or to ransom a Lord. Raised significant income for the Crown.
How did Henry use customs revenue to increase crown income? (SPECIFIC EXAMPLE) - Government
Henry’s first Parliament in 1485 granted tonnage and poundage for life, meaning that certain goods were additionally taxed.
How did Henry increase crown income through pensions? (SPECIFIC EXAMPLE) - Government
Henry negotiated a treaty with France in 1492 (The Treaty of Etaples) after the conflict with France in Brittany, which agreed that the French would pay Henry a £5000/year pension for life.
How did Henry use his justice system to improve Crown finances? Give example - Government
Notably, fines as a result of bonds and recognisances, and also for fines imposed upon the breaking of laws. Between 1504 and 1507, £200,000 promised to Henry as a result of these breaches.
How did Henry use extraordinary revenue to improve crown finances? What was the issue with this? - Government
Henry received over £400,000 in extraordinary revenue, granted by Parliament in the form of additional taxes, during times of emergency such as wars or rebellions. This method, however, did result in rebellions due to its unpopularity.
How many times larger was the size of crown lands at the end of Henry’s reign than in the 1450s? - Government
Crown lands were roughly 5 times larger in 1509 than in 1450.
What was the annual income from crown lands during Henry VII’s reign? - Government
The annual income from crown lands during Henry VII’s reign was £40,000.
How many Acts of Attainder did Henry pass during his reign? How many were reversed? - Government
Henry passed 138 Acts of Attainder during his reign, reversing 46.
How much money did Henry VII leave for Henry VIII? - Government
Henry VII left Henry VIII £300,000
How many of England’s 62 noble families paid money in bonds and recognisances to Henry VII? - Government
36/62 noble families paid money in the form of bonds and recognisances.
When was the Act of Resumption passed? What did this determine? - Government
The Act of Resumption was passed in 1486, with this returning all lands lost to the crown since 1455.
When did Henry VII introduce a new Book of Rates? What impact did this have? - Government
Henry introduced a new Book of Rates in 1507, with this increasing customs revenues to the crown.
How much money did Henry take in benevolences in 1491? - Government
Henry took £49,000 of benevolences in 1491.
In which parliament did Henry VII commit to no further requests for extraordinary revenue? - Government
Henry committed to no further requests for extraordinary revenue in the 1504 Parliament.