What was the major religion in England under Henry VII? What word describes the relationship between Church and State? - R,H,A+L
During Henry VII’s reign, Catholicism was the dominant religion, with the relationship between Church and State known as Erastian, where the State should have authority over the Church.
How many parish churches were there in England at this time? - R,H,A+L
England had over 8000 Parish Churches during Henry VII’s reign.
What evidence is there of a good relationship existing between Henry VII and the Pope in Rome? - R,H,A+L
Upon Henry’s marriage to Elizabeth of York, Henry sought papal dispensation for this marriage to go ahead. Henry also established a Cardinal Protector in Rome to deal with Church business.
What evidence is there of the overlap between clerical and political work? - R,H,A+L
Henry promoted many senior clergy into highly ranking political positions, such as John Morton (Archbishop of Canterbury) and Richard Fox (Bishop of Exeter/Lord Keeper of the Great Seal).
Henry VII appointed all bishops. How many of Henry’s bishops were trained in law compared to theological studies? Why was this? - R,H,A+L
Henry appointed 15 law graduates as bishops compared to 8 theologians. Legal training prepared bishops for administration, which was essential if they were to be elevated to political roles.
How were individuals supposed to achieve grace through the church? Name as many of these methods as possible - R,H,A+L
Individuals achieved grace through observing as many of the seven sacraments as possible. These include: Baptism, Confirmation, Marriage, Anointing of the Sick, Penance (seeking of forgiveness), Holy Orders (delivering sacraments to others), Eucharist (eating of bread and wine at Mass).
What was the primary religious experience within the Catholic Church at this time? What was the main religious belief surrounding this and what was it known as? - R,H,A+L
The main religious experience within the Catholic Church was the Mass. At this point, people consume bread and wine, with the belief that these 2 objects become the literal blood and body of Christ (Transubstantiation).
How did benefactors influence the social aspect of the church? What motivation did these benefactors have? (3) - R,H,A+L
Benefactors often left money for the foundation of chantries or to parish churches. These benefactors wanted to enhance the beauty of worship, ensure that they had a religious legacy and that they would spend less time in purgatory.
What were chantries? What was intercession? - R,H,A+L
Chantries were chapels where masses were held to pray for the souls of the dead. Intercession was the act of saying a prayer on behalf of another, usually performed by a priest who had been paid to do so.
What were guilds and confraternities? What was the Church’s social function with regards to these? - R,H,A+L
Guilds and confraternities were gatherings of men (and sometimes women) who provided for the funeral costs of members, paid for masses and maintained the social aspect of the Church.
What was the purpose of pilgrimage? What sites constituted pilgrimage at the time?- R,H,A+L
The purpose of going on pilgrimage was to reduce the length of purgatory. This involved visiting holy sites, such as the tomb of Thomas Becket or a site supposedly visited by the Virgin Mary (Walsingham in Norfolk).
What evidence is there of a potential decline in pilgrimage? - R,H,A+L
The tomb of Thomas Becket had witnessed a slight decline in popularity and there was a rise in opposition to pilgrimage.
How was Margaret Beaufort a significant figure religiously and educationally? - R,H,A+L
Margaret Beaufort, the mother of Henry VII, displayed her PIETY by donating sums of money to the foundation of colleges at Cambridge University (Christ’s College/St John’s College).
Why was rogationtide a significant religious experience/pilgrimage? - R,H,A+L
Rogationtide was significant as a whole community would ‘beat the bounds of the parish’ in an attempt to ward off evil spirits on Rogation Sunday.
What percentage of adult males were monks by 1500? How many religious communities existed in England? - R,H,A+L
By 1500, an estimated 1% of adult males were monks. 900 religious communities existed in England in 1500.
What are religious orders? What examples are there of these in Henry VII’s reign? - R,H,A+L
Religious orders are groups with diverging religious beliefs/practices from other groups. At the time, the larges groups were Benedictines (named after St Benedict), Cistercians and Carthusians.
What social background did a large portion of monks come from? Why was this? - R,H,A+L
A large portion of monks were drawn from wealthier parts of society as these groups were better educated than other groups.
What religious class tended to be recruited from lower down the social scale? What were specific religious orders of this class? - R,H,A+L
Friars tended to be recruited from lower social classes, with Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians being 3 dominant orders of Friars.
Why did nunneries have little religious prestige? - R,H,A+L
Nunneries often struggled for significant religious credibility as they were mostly populated with women deemed unacceptable for marriage.
What was Lollardy/Lollard beliefs? Who founded it? - R,H,A+L
Lollardy was a religious movement founded by John Wycliffe in the 14th century branded as a heretical movement. They wanted a stronger understanding of the Bible and its translation into English, as well as that they promoted scepticism of transubstantiation.
What was the status of Lollardy during the reign of Henry VII? - R,H,A+L
Considered a heretical belief, Lollardy had fallen from its widespread following and had declined into small geographical enclaves of support.
What is anticlericalism? Why was this significant? - R,H,A+L
Anticlericalism is opposition to the Church’s role in non-religious (political) matters. This was significant as Henry VII notably promoted Morton and Fox into political positions from clerical roles.
What is humanism? What is humanism based on? - R,H,A+L
Humanism is the development of Renaissance ideas into religion in order to purify it. Based on the rediscovery of Greek and Latin Classic texts.
Who was John Colet? What was his significance as a Humanist educator? - R,H,A+L
John Colet was a humanist scholar who believed in the reform of the church from within. He did this by becoming Dean of St Paul’s and founding St Paul’s School, which preached humanist ideas.
Who was Erasmus? What was his significance to the Humanist cause? - R,H,A+L
Erasmus was a Dutch scholar who produced influential humanist texts that were critical of the corruption of the Church.
Where did the majority of (secondary) education take place during the reign of Henry VII? What was the main subject taught? - R,H,A+L
The majority of what is now considered as secondary education was taught in Grammar Schools, with a particular emphasis on education in Latin.
How many new grammar schools were founded between 1460 and 1509? - R,H,A+L
Between 1460 and 1509, 53 NEW GRAMMAR SCHOOLS were founded.
How was drama important as an Art form at the time? What examples are there of this? - R,H,A+L
Drama was the most significant art form of the period, with plays often presented as part of church ale festivals. In addition, plays took place at feasts of Corpus Christi in towns and cities such as Coventry, Wakefield and York.
How did music undergo a renaissance under the reign of Henry VII? - R,H,A+L
Choral music began to come to significance in replacing chants sung by groups of drinkers.
What instruments became prominent in Henry VII’s reign? Where was this music performed? - R,H,A+L
Music was often performed at the homes of wealthy people or at the court of the King. Instruments such as Shawms and Sackbuts rose to prominence.
What architectural changes occurred within this period? What evidence is there of Henry VII conforming to this? - R,H,A+L
Churches began to be increasingly built in the gothic perpendicular style. This style was used on the Lady Chapel at Westminster, constructed on the orders of Henry VII.
What change is evident in literature during this period? - R,H,A+L
People began to shift from reading traditional medieval texts (such as Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales) to humanist texts by Thomas More, John Colet and Erasmus.