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Flashcards in Ectoparasites - Cattle Deck (59):

Name the species of cattle-biting muscidae which is most common in the UK.

Stomoxys calcitrans


Outline the behaviour of S. calcitrans.

Rests and mates on sun-exposed walls, farm gates, posts and machinery. Prefers to feed on the lower animal (legs and flanks) Moves between animals and is therefore a good mechanical vector of pathogens.


Describe the lifecycle of S. calcitrans.

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What negative effects can S. calcitrans have on cattle production?

  • Blood loss
  • Weight loss - 10-15%
  • Decreased milk yield - 40%
  • BVD
  • Anthrax


Name and describe this species of biting fly.

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  • Lyperosia irritans
  • Horn fly
  • Bovine only
  • Very small (like a mini s. calcitrans)
  • Lays eggs on dung
  • Semi-permanent - lives mainly on cow


Where would L. irritans be found feeding on cattle?

On the backs of cows


Name this species of fly. 

Which part of the world is it mainly found?

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Glossina or Tsetse fly. Restricted to sub-saharan Africa.


Outline the lifecycle of the Tsetse fly.

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How many eggs will a female Tsetse fly produce at one time?



Which lifecycle stage of the Glossina spp. is found deposited on soil by the mother?

Fully-frown larva just prior to pupae


Name and describe three pathogens/ diseases which can be transmitted by the Tsetse fly.

  1. T. congolenses and other trypanosomes - protozoa
  2. Nagana - Anaemia, emmaciation, destruction of lymphnodes
  3. African sleeping sickness in humans


Differenciate between mechanical and cyclical transmission.

With cyclical transmission an intermediate insect vector is required before the pathogen can infect vertebrates whereas with mechanical transmission the disease agent does not require an insect vector.


Name three species of Trypanosome.

  • Congolense
  • Vivax
  • Brucei


The species of trypanosome can be found within the blood stream of cattle, BUT is a non pathogenic protozoa. 

What is it and what fly species transmits it?

Trypanosoma theileri


Name three non-biting species of fly which relate to cattle.

  • Hydrotaea irritans
  • Musca autumnalis
  • Musca domestica


  1. Describe the morphological features of H. irritans. 
  2. How many generations are produced a year?
  3. Which common summer condition does it cause?

  1. Green abdomen with orange wing base.
  2. One, emerging in summer
  3. August bag (summer mastitis)


August bag is mainly caused by which bacteria? (x3)

  • Corynebacterium pyogenes
  • Streptococcus dysgalactiae
  • Peptococcus pyogenes


Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis can be transmitted by which non-biting species of fly?

Outline some features of the epidemiology of this fly.

Musca autumnalis

  • Southern England
  • Rare in north
  • Found on eyes, muzzle and face


A tick shaped wing vein is characteristic of which species of non-biting cattle fly?

Musca autumnalis


Outline the methods of control used for fly control in cattle.

  • Impractical to control larval stages in soil/dung
  • Synthetic pyrethroids on cattle
  • Barriers - teat tape, stockholm tar on teats
  • Husbandry and hygiene
  • Treat accommodation and surfaces


The warble fly is also known by what taxonomic name?

Hypoderma spp.


Name two species of warble fly which can infest cattle.

H. bovism, H. lineatum


How do the migratory routes of cattle warble fly differ between species?

  • Bovis - Travels to spinal epidural fat
  • Lineatum travel to the submucosa of oesophagous 


Outline the lifecycle of the ox warble fly.

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How do the developmental patterns of the two species of warble fly differ?

  • Bovis - Travels to the spine epidural fat, L1-2 moult in november, migration/ development to L3 resumes in spring (feb/march)
  • Lineatum - larvae reach submucosa of oesophagus in late autumn, migration resumes along connective tissue in spring (feb/march)


Around what time of year will the female warble fly lay her eggs on the legs of cattle?



How long does it take for warble fly larvae to reach the skin of the backline of cattle?

9 months


What clinical signs can be found with an infestation of Warble flies?

  • Perforation of hide - breathing holes
  • Gadding
  • Butchers jelly - caused by L1 of H. lineatum
  • Anaphalactic shock


What diagnositic aid is used for warble fly infestations?

What can be used to treat an infestation?


Ivermectin/ other ectoparasiticides


Name three sucking and one biting/ chewing species of cattle lice found in the UK.

  1. Sucking - Linognathus, Haematopinus, Solenoptes
  2. Biting/chewing - Damalinia (bovicola) 


Heavy infestations of lice can result in what clinical signs?

Pruritis, rubbing, hair loss, hide damage, anaemia and weekness.


Name this species of cattle lice and its taxonomic group. 

Where can it be found feeding on the cow?

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Haematopinus eurysternus.


Found on the poll, horn base, eyes and nostrils.


Name this species of cattle lice and its taxonomic group. 

Where can it be found feeding on the cow?

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Linognathus vituli.


Found on the head, neck and dewlap.


Name this species of cattle lice and its taxonomic group. 

Where can it be found feeding on the cow?

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Found on the head, neck and dewlap


Name this species of cattle lice and its taxonomic group. 

Where can it be found feeding on the cow?

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Found on the forehead, shoulders, back and rump.


Which ectoparasiticides are commonly used to treat lice infestations in cattle?

  1. Synthetic pyrethroids - housed animals, for bad infestations use a second treatment two weeks later
  2. Macrocyclic lactones - injectable treatments are more effective against sucking than biting lice
  3. Never under-dose
  4. Treat all cattle at the same time


Which species of mite causes this clinical condition?

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Sheep scab is caused by Psoroptes ovis


Identify this species of large animal mite.

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Psoroptes spp.


Identify this species of mite.

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Chorioptes spp.


How can you differenciate between psoroptes and choriotes mites?

Psoroptes have trumpet shaped suckers whereas choriotes have cup shaped suckers.


Outline the clinical signs of sheep scab.

Serous exudate on the neck and dorsal midline 


Name the species of Chorioptes mite which is the only host-adapted species.

Chorioptes bovis


What treatment is used against Psoroptes ovis?

4% Permethrin, although it is not always successful


Outline the clinical signs seen with an infestation of Chorioptes mite in cattle. 

What treatment should be used?

  • Pruritis and scaling 
  • Mild
  • Affects neck, head, udder, base of tail
  • Ivermectin


Ixodes ricinus lifecycle.

  • 3 - host cycle
  • 3 year cycle

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This species of tick makes its habitat in wet, temperate deciduous woodlands and mixed forest regions, scrub vegetation and uplands moors

Ixodes ricinus


What is represented within these cells?

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Babesia divergens 

Paired merozoites at the margins of the cell


Babesia divergens can be transmitted by which species of tick?

Ixodes ricinus


Name four species of tick which can affect cattle.

Ixodes Ricinus, Rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Amblyomma


These two types of bacteria can be transmitted by ticks. Give their name and outline the strains and diseases they cause.

Anaplasma - phagocytophilum (tick-borne fever), marginale and centrale (bovine anaplasmolysis) Ehrlichia - ruminantium (heartwater)


Name two types of Protozoa which can be transmitted by ticks, their particular strains and the disease they cause.

Babesia - divergens (Redwater in EU cattle), Boris and bigemina (Redwater in the tropics) Theileria - parva (east coast fever), annulata (Mediterranean theileriosis)


The tropical bont tick is also known as what? It can be a vector of which bacteria?

Amblyomma variegatum can be a vector for Ehlichia ruminantium which causes heartwater


This species of tick can be a vector for a disease caused by Theileria parva. Name the species of tick and the disease.

Rhipicephalus appendiculatus can can be a vector for East coast fever.


This species of tick is not an important vector of TBD's but can be found on cattle in Australia, South Africa and Latin America (tropics and subtropics)

Rhipicephalus microplus


What is meant by endemic stability? How can this be applied to a tick borne disease?

Endemic stability is an epidemiological state of a population, in which clinical disease is scarce despite high level of infection. Bovine babesiosis, in endemic areas, causes little disease since most animals are exposed to it when they are very young and therefore protected by inverse age resistance.


How are cattle protected in AUS against babesiosis compared with other countries?

In AUS animals are vaccinated with a live attenuated vaccine whereas regular dipping or spraying with OP's, pyrethrins or amitraz is more commonly used in other countries.


Which species of tick has widespread resistance to acaricide classes?

Rhipicephalus microplus.


Name three acaricides used to control tick populations in cattle.

Organophosphates, pyrethroids, amitraz


How long would an individual be tick-free for if a acaricide with 4 days residual activity is used?

24 days - ticks have a three week lifecycle plus 4 days residue.