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Flashcards in PO Ecto/Endoparasites Deck (37):
1

Describe the morphology of an Ascaris suum egg.

70um

Thick, pitted wall

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2

Describe the morphology of Ascaris suum adults

Large - 15-25cm

Males have curled tail (like a pig)

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3

What is the intermediate host of Ascaris suum?

Earthworm

4

Outline the lifecycle of Ascaris suum.

  1. Eggs in pig faeces
  2. Development on grass for 4 weeks
  3. Ingested by earthworm - l2 hatch from eggs
  4. Ingested by pig 
    1. Hepato-pulmonary migration
  5. Coughed up and swallowed and adult develop in the GIT

 

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5

What is the PPP of Ascaris suum?

8 weeks

6

What three features of the Ascaris suum lifecycle lead to clinical signs in the pig?

  • Hypersensitivity to migration - pneumonia and milk spot liver
  • SI infection - poor wt gain and mechanical blockage
  • Liver condemnation and decreased wt gain - reduced economic gain

 

7

Describe this lesion

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Multifocal to coelescing round pale tan/ white lesions ranging from .5x.5 cm to 2x2 cm. Soft to touch and affecting one lobe of the liver.

Chronic multifocal severe fibrosing parasitic hepatitis

Ascaris suum

8

How are Ascaris suum outbreaks controlled?

Condemnation of carcasses

Quick immunity develops with infection

Steam clean accomodation to remove eggs

Reduce contact with paratenic host - worms (outdoor not possible)

9

Which strongyloides are known to affect pigs?

Describe the morphology of the nematode.

Strongyloides ransomi

  • Small - 6mm
  • Hair-like
  • Small eggs 

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10

Describe the lifecycle of strongyloides ransomi.

  1. Free-living - moist, warm habitats
  2. Parasitic
    1. Percutaneous infection
    2. Migration to:
      1. Lungs
      2. Small intesting
      3. Mammary glands - TMT
    3. Excreted in faeces

 

11

What transmission routes are utilised by Strongyloides ransomi?

Percutaneous

TMT in sows

12

What clinical signs are observed in an infection of Strogyloides ransomi?

Diarrhoea and weight loss in piglets

Treat via BZ/ML and biosecurity improvements

13

Whipworm

Trichuris

14

Describe the morphology of an adult Trichuris.

Anterior to posterior thickness 

Anterior end is thinner

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15

What is th PPP of Strongyloides ransomi?

15 days

16

Describe the morphology of a Trichuris egg.

Lemon shaped

Contain L1 

Highly resistent in the environment

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17

Describe the recognisable morphology of an adult Oesophagostomum.

2cm adults

Cephalic vesicle

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18

Which other nematode are Hyostrongylus similar to in other species?

Ostertagia

19

What feature of Metastrongylus apri is indicative of larval morphology?

L1 tail knob

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20

What is the intermediate host of Metastrongylus apri?

Earthworm

21

Outline the lifecycle of Metastrongylus apri.

  1. Egs in faeces
  2. Ingested by earthworm and develop from L1-L3
  3. Ingested by pig
  4. SI-LN- Lungs migration
  5. Coughed up and swallowed
  6. Adults in SI

 

22

What clinical signs are associated with infections of Metastrongylus apri?

  • Catarrhal/ eosinophilic bronchitis
  • 4-7 m/o pigs
  • Cough, dyspnoea, nasal discharge
  • Decreased wt gain
  • Inappetence

 

23

Name three zoonotic parasites associated with pigs.

  1. Trichinella spiralis
  2. Balantidium coli
  3. Taenia solium

 

24

Outline the clinical signs associated with human Trichinosis.

  • Fever
  • Oedema
  • Muscle pain
  • Periorbital oedema
  • Myocarditis
  • Meningitis

 

25

When are humans at risk of ingesting Trichinella spiralis?

When eating undercooked and contaminated meat (eg pig, horse, game etc)

26

Outline the lifecycle of Trichinella spiralis

  1. Larvae are ingested 
  2. Migrate to muscle
  3. Encyst in porcine muscle
  4. Ingested by human
  5. L1 released, develop to adults and die

 

27

What two transmission methods are employed by Trichinella spiralis?

Free living parasites are ingested

Faecal-oral route

28

What legislation has been put in place to protect humans from Trichinosis?

2014 EU legislation - all boars, sows and pigs from non-controlled housing must be tested at slaughter.

29

How is Balantidium coli transmitted to humans?

Faecal-oral route

30

Balantidium coli causes what type of disease in humans? What groups are more readily affected?

Intestinal disease

More readily affects immunocompromised humans and malnurished (low stomach pH)

31

How can Taenia solium be transmitted to humans?

What disease does each method lead to in the human?

  1. Eating cysts in undercooked pork - tapeworm develop in small intesting - Definitive host
  2. Ingesting eggs - metacestode develops in the brain and neural tissue causeing Neurocysticercosis - Intermediate host

 

32

Neurocystercosis

Cysts of Taenia solium developing in the brain of human

33

Isospora suis causes what clinical signs in the pig?

Piglet enteritis

Diarrhoea unresponsive to antibiotics

Low/ -ve oocyst counts

34

Outline the lifecycle of Isospora suis.

  1. Oocysts in faeces
  2. Develop and sporulate in the environment
  3. Ingested by pig
  4. x2 asexual reproductive cycles = Merozoites in schizonts
  5. x1 sexal reproduction cycle = Produces zygotes

 

35

How is Isospora treated in pigs?

Sulphonomides

36

What clinical signs are associated with Sarcoptes scabei in pigs?

  • Ear lesions spreading to back flank and abdomen
  • Severe immune reaction
  • Pruritis
  • Erythema
  • Dermal hyperplasia
  • Secondary bacterial infection

Tx. Macrocyclic lactones

37

What clinical signs are associated with Haematopinus suis

Decreased feeding/ growth rates

Decreased hide quality

Intense itching