Nuisance flies are of the which family of Diptera?
What are the feeding habits of the Muscidae family?
They feed on bodily secretions or suck blood
How does the morphology of T.tabanus and T.haematopota differ?
Tabanus has clear wings whereas haematopota has mottled colored wings
Tabanidae species can be vectors of which major diseases/ parasites?
- Equine infectious anaemia
- Bacillus anthracis
- Trypanosomes evansi
This pool feeding fly breeds in wet pasture or marsh lands and causes gadding in cattle through July and August.
Which species of Muscidae causes sweet itch in horses?
Sweet itch is also known as ?
Seasonal recurrent dermatitis
How long does it take for culicoides to develop from egg to adult?
About three weeks
Culicoides species can act as a vet to for which major diseases?
- African horse sickness
- Blue tongue
- Protozoa/ nematodes
Simulium flies are also known by which name?
Name the two main species of culicoides flies.
Non- biting Muscidae feed upon what from its host?
This non-biting Muscidae fly can be identified by its orange wing base and olive abdomen. It causes August bag in dairy cattle.
How many life cycles will a culicoides go through a year?
Gasterophilus species are more commonly known as what?
Name the three main species of gastrophilus flies.
Male culicoides feed upon what?
This non-biting Muscidae is characterised by a wing vein tick. It is also known as the face fly.
What is the ideal environment for stomoxys calcitrans to breed?
- Old feed
- Decaying matter
What is gadding?
Restless/ agitated behavior in response to fly bites
Why are the bites of stomoxys calcitrans very painful for the horse?
Their have a long pointed proboscis
How can stable fly attacks be minimalised in the horse?
Regular application of pyrethrins, eliminating breeding sites (dung, old bedding), repellents, barriers to flies.
What clinical condition are black fly seen to cause?
- This type of ectoparasiticide targets the AchE enzyme of the parasite.
- What effect does this have?
- Causes accumulation of neurotransmitter therefore leading to paralysis. Can be toxic to other species.
Synthetic pyrethroids have natural analogues which originate from which plant?
- Outline the mode of action of synthetic pyrethroids.
- Which parasite are they used to target?
- Cause depolarisation of cell membranes via voltage-gated Na+ channelsand therefore paralysis.
- Lice and ticks.
- Moxidectin is an example of which class of parasiticides.
- What are they used against?
- Macrocyclic lactones - milbemycins They are endectocides - effective against lots of
- Arthropoda and nematodes.
This ectoparasiticide stimulates the release of GABA NT leading to hyperpolarisation of the NS of the parasite. It is highly lipophilic and therefore persists within the body.
Which insect growth regulator acts to inhibit normal chitin synthesis?
Insect development inhibitors
Name an insect development inhibitor which is used in the control of blow flies for up to 14 weeks.
Triazine derivatives, cyromazine
Name a juvenile hormone analogue.
This flea adulticide targets nicotinic ACh receptors of the parasite.
Imidacloprid - a neonicotinoid
Explain why fipronil has a long residual activity.
It diffuses into hair follicle associated sebaceous glands therefore acting as a reservoir .
- This ectoparasiticide is used against sarcoptes and demodex and acts at octopamine receptor sites.
- What does their action cause?
- Causes neuronal hyperexcitability and death
Describe the external features of Arthropoda.
- An external waterproofed skeleton made from alpha chitin.
- A segmented body.
- Jointed limbs.
Laying of eggs by flies which hatch and burrow into the host.
Which type of ectoparasite lifecycle is more difficult to hold?
Permanent or temporary?
Ectoparasite circulatory system.
Holes in the side of the insect used in respiration.
Mechanical digestion of food in insects occurs in which organs?
Foregut, crop, proventricles
What is the function of the makpighian tubules of an insect?
Filters waste from haemolymph into the gut.
What is the difference between holometabolous and heminetabolous
- Holo = complete metamorphosis
- Hemi = incomplete metamorphosis
What is the structural difference between a tick nymph and adult?
Nymph has only six legs whereas the adult has eight.
Name the different parts and function of the haemtopota mouthpart.
- Palp Labrum - upper lip
- Mandible - cutting/ slashing
- Hypopharynx - tongue like
- Maxillae Labium/ labellum - Lower lip
Describe the specialised mouthpart of H. irritans.
For secretions, not blood
What is the function of the hypostome of the tick?
Secretes cementing factors and anticoagulant.
Has serrated spines to anchor them to the skins.
Name the three feeding habits of different types of mite and give an example for each.
- Skin burrowing - sarcoptes
- Follicle - dwelling - demodex
- Surface feeding - psoroptes ovis (sheep scab)/ Cheyletiella
- Obligate blood suckers - poultry red mite
A pool feeding fly which breeds in wet pasture, marshy lands and edges of ponds and ditches.
Causes gadding in horses during July/ early August.
Pruritis caused by culicoides is caused by what?
Hypersensitivity to culicoides saliva.
African horse sickness is an example of which type of virus?
This species of culicoides is the vector of bluetongue in Northern Europe.
This species of fly lay their eggs in rivers which hatch into aquatic larvae that depend on flowing water.
Simulium are vectors of which diseases?
River blindness - Onchocerca
Leucocytozoon - Geese and ducks
Describe the behaviour of S. calcitrans.
Rest/ mate on sun exposed walls
Feed on lower parts of the animal
S. calcitrans acts as a vector for which diseases?
- Equibe infectious anaemia
- Bovine viral diarrhoea
Name the three main non-biting muscidae.
- H. Irritans - headfly
- M. Autumnalis - facefly
- M. Domestica- housefly
This species of fly does not enter buildings and is mainly found in overcast, warm and humid August days.
Name the species of gastrophillus and describe where each lays their eggs on the horse.
- Intestinalis - inner forelegs and hocks
- Nasalis- laid under the jaw
- Haemorrhoidalis- lips
Outline the basic lifecycle of G. intestinalis.
Eggs ingested, burrow into tongue, moult and exit to pharynx, moult to L2, migrate to oesophageal stomach, moult to L3 remain until spring, passed in the dung and mature to adults.
How can gastrophillus infections be controlled?
Ivermectin or moxidectin infections
Removal of eggs
Pediculosis is caused by which mite?
- The disease is characterised by which clinical symptoms.
- Mites on head, neck and tail 1cm eggs can be seen on hairs
Describe the morphology of Trichodectes canis
- Small (1-2mm)
- Yellow dark marks on abdomen
- Claws to grip hairs
How long can Trichodectes canis survive off the host?
Mites have what type of lifecycle complete or incomplete?
Incomplete lifecycle, they go through 3 nymph stages.
Name this rare sucking louse of cats and dogs.
Describe morphology and distribution of Felicola subrostrata.
Triangular shaped head
Cause lesions on the face, pinnae and back.
1. This ectoparasiticide disrupts the CNS of the parasite by blocking GABA and other ligand-gated chloride channels.
2. How long does it persist in the body?
3. How long does it take to kill fleas and lice?
2. 60 days but weakens
3. 24 hrs to kill fleas and 48hrs to kill lice
Imidacloprid blocks which type of neurotransmitter channel?
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
1. Fluralaner is an example of which type of ectoparasiticide?
2. What is this classes mode of action?
3. How do they distribute in the body?
2. Inhibitors of CNS, blocks GABA and glutamate channels, they target newly emerging fleas
3. Systemic, particularly in fat.
Describe the lifecycle of the flea.
1. Eggs - laid on host and fall off into environment
2. Larvae - 3 larval stages - they are positively geotactic (move in response to gravity)
3. Pupae - pre emerging adults - can wait up to 6 months
4. Adult fleas - live permanently on the host - lay eggs 48hrs after infestation
Cat scratch disease is caused by which pathogen spread by cat fleas.
How do fleas become a vector for Dipylidium canium?
D. canium disintegrates to produce eggs, flea ingests egg pockets, tapeworm develops.
How can a flea investation be diagnosed?
1. Flea dirt dehydration2. Signs of flea allergic dermatitis - alopecia, excessive grooming, skin damage 3. Visible signs
What taxonomic group do fleas belong to?
Insecta > Siphonaptera > Ctenocephalides (canis/ felis)
Describe the morphological features of a flea.
Dark brown Wingless
Head combs (pronotal and genal)
What environmental parameters are required for flea development?
>70% relative humidity
How does the morphology of the two equine lice Mallophaga and Anoplura differ
Mallophaga wide head to body whereas anoplura has a narrow head compared with body
Describe the lifecycle of the louse.
1. Eggs - hatch after one to two weeks2. Larva - 3 instar stages3. Adult - lay 200-300 eggs per month on hair/ feathers
1. Name two lice found on horses2. Where are they usually found on the body?
1. Haematopinus asini (sucking), Bovicola equi (biting and chewing)2. Dense hair at the tail and mane base
1. Cypermethrin shows what type of isomerism?2. How often does its treatment need topping up?
1. Optical - it is 50:50 cis/trans mixture2. 2-4 weeks
This ectoparasiticide works as a neuropoison of axons of CNS and PNS using Na channels.Which species should you be wary of when using it?
Differenciate between the morphology of psoroptic and chorioptes.
Psoroptic have trumpet suckers whereas chorioptes have cup shaped suckers.
Which type of lice causes sheep scab and severe disease in sheep and cattle?
How may Chorioptes bovis/equi be treated?
Selenium sulphide or fipronil
How long can chorioptes survive off the host?
Up to 3 weeks
Which gender of Tabanidae is pool feeding?
Dog and cat fleas belong to which taxomic group?
Name the main types of pharmacological agents used as ectoparasiticides.
Insect growth regulators (JGA and CSI)