Flashcards in Electrolyte imbalances Deck (20):
Tx for honeycomb pattern on CT?
Diffuse interstitial pulm fibrosis
Azathioprine or cyclophosphamide
NAC can be used
What is psueodohyponatremia?
Hyperlipidemia in which serum Na looks low, but it isnt
Na+ change resulting from correction of hyperglycemia?
Na+ will go up 1.6 for every 100 glucose pulled off
Patient hyponatremic, what do you do next?
If high, check glucose
If normal, check lipids or for MM
If low, check urine sodium to see if spilling salts, or trying to save salts
Patient with hypovolemia, hypoosmolar, and UNa is less than 10 and euvolemic state?
Tx of hyponatremia?
Restrict free water
VAsopressin antagonist (vaptans)
How you treat any hyponatremia
Serum osmolarity calculation?
Hypernatremia rare with hyperaldosteronism, but remember it!
What is triad of hyperaldosteronism?
Dx of Diabetes insipidus? Then how do you tell if from central or not?
Urine osmolarity should rise when holding back water
It stays low if DI is present
Give ADH (desmopressin)
If urine concentrates, its central
Tx of central DI?
Nephrogenic DI tx?
Second line tx of nephrogenic DI?
Increase water intake
Thiazide (gets rid of some sodium, slight volume depletion and kidney resorbs more)
indomethacin decreases renal flow so hold more water as second line
tx lithium induced nephrogenic DI?
Lithium blocks the channels that Lithium uses so can't affect it!!!
Causes of hyperkalemia?
Digoxin I GUESS
Emergency treatment hyperkalemia
Especially first thing you do?
C BIG K Drop
IV Calcium gluconate or calcium chloride (stabilize cardiac membrane)
Insulin and glucose
Beta agonist (albuterol)
Glucocorticoids can decrease absorption
What is familial hypocalciuiric hypercalcemia?
How do you recognize it?
Absence of osteopenia and absence of nephrolithiasis
Hypocalcemia can be caused by what?
chronic renal failure
Albumin affect on Ca?
As albumin goes down, total calcium also goes down
0.8 per 1 g of albumin