Electrolyte imbalances Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Electrolyte imbalances Deck (20):
1

Tx for honeycomb pattern on CT?

Diffuse interstitial pulm fibrosis

Azathioprine or cyclophosphamide

NAC can be used

2

What is psueodohyponatremia?

Hyperlipidemia in which serum Na looks low, but it isnt

3

Na+ change resulting from correction of hyperglycemia?

Na+ will go up 1.6 for every 100 glucose pulled off

4

Patient hyponatremic, what do you do next?

Check osmolarity

If high, check glucose

If normal, check lipids or for MM

If low, check urine sodium to see if spilling salts, or trying to save salts

5

Patient with hypovolemia, hypoosmolar, and UNa is less than 10 and euvolemic state?

Psychogenic polydipsia

6

Tx of hyponatremia?

Restrict free water
Loops
Hypertonic saline
VAsopressin antagonist (vaptans)

7

SIADH tx?

How you treat any hyponatremia

Hypertonic saline
Fluid restriction
Vasopressin antagoinists
Loop

8

Serum osmolarity calculation?

2*(Na+K)+Gluc/18+BUN/2.8

9

Hypernatremia rare with hyperaldosteronism, but remember it!

What is triad of hyperaldosteronism?

Hypertension
Hypokalemia
Alkalosis (met)

10

Dx of Diabetes insipidus? Then how do you tell if from central or not?

Water deprivatin

Urine osmolarity should rise when holding back water

It stays low if DI is present

Give ADH (desmopressin)
If urine concentrates, its central

11

Tx of central DI?

desmo

12

Nephrogenic DI tx?

Second line tx of nephrogenic DI?

Salt restriciton
Increase water intake
Thiazide (gets rid of some sodium, slight volume depletion and kidney resorbs more)

indomethacin decreases renal flow so hold more water as second line

13

tx lithium induced nephrogenic DI?

Amiloride

Lithium blocks the channels that Lithium uses so can't affect it!!!

14

Causes of hyperkalemia?

Low insulin
Beta Blockers
Acidosis
Digoxin I GUESS
Cell lysis

15

Emergency treatment hyperkalemia

Especially first thing you do?

C BIG K Drop

IV Calcium gluconate or calcium chloride (stabilize cardiac membrane)

Insulin and glucose
Beta agonist (albuterol)
Sodium bicarb

dialysis
Kayexalate
Loop

16

Hypercalcemia tx?

Hydration
Calcitonin
Bisphosphonates
Glucocorticoids can decrease absorption

17

What is familial hypocalciuiric hypercalcemia?

How do you recognize it?

Family history

Low Ca++
Absence of osteopenia and absence of nephrolithiasis

18

Hypocalcemia can be caused by what?

hypoparathyroid
chronic renal failure
hyperphosphatemia
Vit D
Pancreatitis

HYPERPHOPHATEMIA

19

Albumin affect on Ca?

As albumin goes down, total calcium also goes down

0.8 per 1 g of albumin

20

Hypocalcemia on EKG?

QT prolongation (think how that can become torsade)