Electrolytes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Electrolytes Deck (23):
1

Potassium range and daily intake

3.5-5mEq/L. 4200mg/day

2

Potassium natural sources

Citrus, meat, bananas, potatoes, broccoli, prunes, beans, milk, nuts, salt substitute, fish.

3

What happens to K with acidosis?

It comes out of the cell

4

What causes K loss?

Aldosterone, black licorice, hypomagnesemia, polyuria increase renal excretion of K+

5

Calcium range and daily intake

8.5-11mg/L. 1000mg/day. 1200mg if >50yr old

6

Calcium natural sources

Dairy, broccoli, oranges, canned fish. (Vitamin D improves absorption, undigested fat prevents absorption.)

7

Calcium albumin relationship

Low albumin leads to low calcium

8

Calcium loss factors

Thiazide diuretics decrease renal excretion of Ca. Chronic diarrhea & undigested fat increase excretion of Ca. Balance controlled by PTH, calcitonin and vitamin D.

9

Calcium functions

Influences excitability of nerve and muscle cells; necessary for muscle contraction, bone health, activation of clotting mechanism.

10

Magnesium range and daily intake

1.3-2.1mg/dl. 320-420mg/day. (we start replacing at 1.8)

11

Mg natural sources

Dark green leafy veggies, whole grains, milk, nuts (Undigested fat prevents absorption.)

12

Mg loss factors

High blood ethanol increases & oliguria decreases renal excretion of Mg. Chronic diarrhea & undigested fat increase fecal excretion.

13

Mg functions

Sedative effect on neuromuscular junctions (inhibits acetylcholine and diminishes muscle excitability); nerve conduction, DNA synthesis

14

Phosphate range and daily intake

2.4-4.4mg/dl. 20-40mmol/day

15

Phosphate natural sources

Milk, poultry, fish, beans, nuts, processed foods. Aluminum antacids prevent absorption. Need vitamin D for intestinal absorption

16

Phosphate loss factors

Oliguria decreases renal excretion of PO. PTH stimulates renal tubes to excrete phosphorous. Kidneys are major route of phosphate excretion.

17

Phosphate functions

Necessary for production of ATP (energy source for cellular metabolism). Muscle, RBCs, bone, teeth, CNS function. PTH stimulates secretion of phosphorus via kidneys

18

Isotonic fluids

NS, D5W, LR,

19

Hypotonic fluids

1/4, 1/2 NS

20

Hypertonic fluids

3,5% NS, D5+electrolytes, D10 and higher,

21

ECV deficit s/sx

Sudden weight loss, orthostatic hypotension, tachycardia, thready pulse, flat or collapsing neck veins when supine, slow vein filling, oliguria, concentrated urine, dry mucous membranes, skin turgor, absence of sweat/tears, tongue furrows, thirst, restlessness, confusion, hypotension, cold, clammy skin, hypovolemic shock.
Labs: Elevated Hct, BUN > 25 mg, urine specific gravity > 1.030.

22

ECV excess s/sx

Sudden weight gain, edema in dependent areas, full neck veins when upright, crackles, pulmonary edema, bounding pulse.
Labs: BUN

23

Hypernatremia s/sx

Extreme thirst, dry/flushed skin, postural hypotension, fever, restlessness, oliguria, N/V, confusion, agitation, coma, seizures.
Nx: Treat underlying cause, gradual water replacement (5DW), diuretics.
Labs: Na > 145 mEq & serum osmolality > 295 mOsm/kg, urine specific gravity 1.030, alkalosis