Flashcards in Unit 1 Deck (75):
Ovum or preembryonic stage time
Embryotic stage lenght
Week 3 to 8 (6 weeks)
Week 9 to 38 (29 weeks)
Three primary germ layers
Ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm.
Ectoderm (upper layer)
Gives rise to the epidermis, the glands (anterior pituitary, cutaneous, and mammary), the nails and hair, the central and peripheral nervous systems, the lens of the eye, the tooth enamel, and the floor of the amniotic cavity
Mesoderm (middle layer)
Develops into the bones and teeth, the muscles (skeletal, smooth, and cardiac), the dermis and connective tissue, the cardiovascular system and spleen, and the urogenital system
Endoderm (lower layer)
Gives rise to the epithelium lining the respiratory and digestive tracts, and the glandular cells of associated organs, including the oropharynx, the liver and pancreas, the urethra, the bladder, and the vagina. The endoderm forms the roof of the yolk sac.
The portion of the endometrium directly under the blastocyst, where the chorionic villi tap into the maternal blood vessels. Maternal aspect of the placenta made up of uterine blood vessels, endometrial stroma, and glands. It is shed in lochial discharge after birth
Substances or exposure that causes abnormal development.
More than 1.5L of amniotic fluid. It can lead to gastrointestinal problems and malformations
Fetus with less than 300ml of amniotic fluid. Can lead to fetal renal problems
lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio
determine the health or maturity of the fetus
Connective tissue that prevents compression of the blood vessels and ensures continued nourishment of the embryo or fetus
is the functional layer of the placenta.
Four hormones produced by the placenta
hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), hCS(human chorionic somatomammotropin), progesterone, estrogen (mostly estriol)
Mechanism used for transferring large molecules, such as albumin and gamma globulins, across the placental membrane
Pattern of supplying the highest levels of oxygen and nutrients to the head, neck, and arms enhances the development of the embryo/fetus.
The formation of blood, occurs in the yolk sac beginning in the third week
A hernia in which abdominal organs protrude into the umbilical cord
When the cord is wrapped around the fetal neck.
A peripheral location of the placenta
The areas where more than two bones meet
When two mature ova are produced in one ovarian cycle, both have the potential to be fertilized by separate sperm.
Identical, or monozygotic, twins
Develop from one fertilized ovum, which then divides
The condition was present at birth
A woman who is pregnated
A woman who has never been pregnant and is not currently pregnant.
A woman who is pregnant for the first time
A woman who has had two or more pregnancies.
The number of pregnancies in which the fetus or fetuses have reached 20 weeks of gestation, not the number of fetuses (e.g., twins) born. Parity is not affected by whether the fetus is born alive or is stillborn (i.e., showing no signs of life at birth)
A woman who has not completed a pregnancy with a fetus or fetuses beyond 20 weeks of gestation
A woman who has completed one pregnancy with a fetus or fetuses who have reached 20 weeks of gestation
A woman who has completed two or more pregnancies to 20 weeks of gestation or more
A pregnancy that has reached 20 weeks of gestation but ends before completion of 37 weeks of gestation.
A pregnancy that has reached between 34 weeks 0 days and 36 weeks 6 days of gestation
A pregnancy that has reached between 37 weeks 0 days and 38 weeks 6 days of gestation
A pregnancy that has reached between 39 weeks 0 days and 40 weeks 6 days of gestation
A pregnancy that has reached between 41 weeks 0 days and 41 weeks 6 days of gestation
A pregnancy that has reached between 42 weeks 0 days and beyond of gestation
Gravidity, term, preterm, abortions, living children.
In pregnancy terms, quickening is the moment in pregnancy when the pregnant woman starts to feel or perceive fetal movements in the uterus. week 10-14.
White or slightly gray mucoid discharge with a faint musty odor
Softening of the cervix, a probable sign of pregnancy, occurring during the second month.
Violet bluish vaginal mucous membrane and cervix that is visible from about the fourth week of pregnancy; caused by increased vascularity.
Softening of the lower uterine segment that is classified as a probable sign of pregnancy; may be present during the second and third months of pregnancy and is palpated during bimanual examination.
Braxton Hicks contractions
Mild, intermittent, painless uterine contractions that occur during pregnancy. They start around 4th month. These contractions occur more frequently as pregnancy advances but do not represent true labor.
(1) Movability of a floating object, such as a fetus. (2) Diagnostic technique using palpation: a floating object, when tapped or pushed, moves away and then returns to touch the examiner’s hand. (3) Passive movement of the unengaged fetus.
Uterine souffle or bruit
Rushing or blowing sound of maternal blood flowing through uterine arteries to the placenta
The funic souffle
Which is synchronous with the fetal heart rate and is caused by fetal blood coursing through the umbilical cord, may also be heard, as well as the fetus’s actual heartbeat
Increase in number of cells
Increase in size
Hypertrophied of the sebaceous (oil) glands embedded in the primary areolae
Human chorionic gonadotropin
Softening of the cervix and vagina due to hypertrophy
Bluish discoloration of the cervix, vagina, and labia resulting from increased blood flow. It can be observed as early as 6 to 8 weeks after conception, and its presence is an early sign of pregnancy.
Contractions are sporadic uterine contractions that start about 6 weeks into your pregnancy
Because the plasma increase is greater than the increase in red blood cell (RBC) production, there is a decrease in normal hemoglobin values (12 to 16 g/dl blood) and hematocrit values (37% to 47%).
Tissue easily damage
Blotchy, brownish hyperpigmentation of the skin over the cheeks, nose, and forehead, especially in pregnant women with dark complexions
Pigmented line extending from the symphysis pubis to the top of the fundus in the midline
Commonly referred to as vascular spiders
diastasis recti abdominis
Abdominal muscles can separate allowing abdominal contents to protrude at the midline.
last menstrual period
Baby hair. The younger the hairier.
White cheesy stuff on their skin.
400-800 mcg/day, 0.4-0.8mg/day
advanced maternal age
pigmentation in the face
28 week pregnancy to 28 days life