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Flashcards in Unit 1 Deck (75):
1

Ovum or preembryonic stage time

14 days

2

Embryotic stage lenght

Week 3 to 8 (6 weeks)

3

Fetus stage

Week 9 to 38 (29 weeks)

4

Three primary germ layers

Ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm.

5

Ectoderm (upper layer)

Gives rise to the epidermis, the glands (anterior pituitary, cutaneous, and mammary), the nails and hair, the central and peripheral nervous systems, the lens of the eye, the tooth enamel, and the floor of the amniotic cavity

6

Mesoderm (middle layer)

Develops into the bones and teeth, the muscles (skeletal, smooth, and cardiac), the dermis and connective tissue, the cardiovascular system and spleen, and the urogenital system

7

Endoderm (lower layer)

Gives rise to the epithelium lining the respiratory and digestive tracts, and the glandular cells of associated organs, including the oropharynx, the liver and pancreas, the urethra, the bladder, and the vagina. The endoderm forms the roof of the yolk sac.

8

Decidua basalis

The portion of the endometrium directly under the blastocyst, where the chorionic villi tap into the maternal blood vessels. Maternal aspect of the placenta made up of uterine blood vessels, endometrial stroma, and glands. It is shed in lochial discharge after birth

9

teratogens

Substances or exposure that causes abnormal development.

11

hydramnios (polyhydramnios)

More than 1.5L of amniotic fluid. It can lead to gastrointestinal problems and malformations

12

oligohydramnios

Fetus with less than 300ml of amniotic fluid. Can lead to fetal renal problems

13

lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio

determine the health or maturity of the fetus

14

Wharton’s jelly

Connective tissue that prevents compression of the blood vessels and ensures continued nourishment of the embryo or fetus

15

syncytium

is the functional layer of the placenta.

16

Four hormones produced by the placenta

hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), hCS(human chorionic somatomammotropin), progesterone, estrogen (mostly estriol)

17

Pinocytosis

Mechanism used for transferring large molecules, such as albumin and gamma globulins, across the placental membrane

18

cephalocaudal

Pattern of supplying the highest levels of oxygen and nutrients to the head, neck, and arms enhances the development of the embryo/fetus.

19

Hematopoiesis

The formation of blood, occurs in the yolk sac beginning in the third week

20

omphalocele

A hernia in which abdominal organs protrude into the umbilical cord

21

nuchal cord

When the cord is wrapped around the fetal neck.

22

battledore placenta

A peripheral location of the placenta

23

fontanels

The areas where more than two bones meet

24

Dizygotic Twins

When two mature ova are produced in one ovarian cycle, both have the potential to be fertilized by separate sperm.

25

Identical, or monozygotic, twins

Develop from one fertilized ovum, which then divides

26

Congenital

The condition was present at birth

27

Gravida

A woman who is pregnated

28

Gravidity

Pregnancy

29

Nulligravida

A woman who has never been pregnant and is not currently pregnant.

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Primigravida

A woman who is pregnant for the first time

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Multigravida

A woman who has had two or more pregnancies.

32

Parity

The number of pregnancies in which the fetus or fetuses have reached 20 weeks of gestation, not the number of fetuses (e.g., twins) born. Parity is not affected by whether the fetus is born alive or is stillborn (i.e., showing no signs of life at birth)

33

Nullipara

A woman who has not completed a pregnancy with a fetus or fetuses beyond 20 weeks of gestation

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Primipara

A woman who has completed one pregnancy with a fetus or fetuses who have reached 20 weeks of gestation

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Multipara

A woman who has completed two or more pregnancies to 20 weeks of gestation or more

36

Preterm

A pregnancy that has reached 20 weeks of gestation but ends before completion of 37 weeks of gestation.

37

Late preterm

A pregnancy that has reached between 34 weeks 0 days and 36 weeks 6 days of gestation

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Early term

A pregnancy that has reached between 37 weeks 0 days and 38 weeks 6 days of gestation

39

Full term

A pregnancy that has reached between 39 weeks 0 days and 40 weeks 6 days of gestation

40

Late term

A pregnancy that has reached between 41 weeks 0 days and 41 weeks 6 days of gestation

41

Post term

A pregnancy that has reached between 42 weeks 0 days and beyond of gestation

42

GTPAL

Gravidity, term, preterm, abortions, living children.

43

Quickening

In pregnancy terms, quickening is the moment in pregnancy when the pregnant woman starts to feel or perceive fetal movements in the uterus. week 10-14.

44

Leukorrhea

White or slightly gray mucoid discharge with a faint musty odor

45

Goodell sign

Softening of the cervix, a probable sign of pregnancy, occurring during the second month.

46

Chadwick sign

Violet bluish vaginal mucous membrane and cervix that is visible from about the fourth week of pregnancy; caused by increased vascularity.

47

Hegar sign

Softening of the lower uterine segment that is classified as a probable sign of pregnancy; may be present during the second and third months of pregnancy and is palpated during bimanual examination.

48

Braxton Hicks contractions

Mild, intermittent, painless uterine contractions that occur during pregnancy. They start around 4th month. These contractions occur more frequently as pregnancy advances but do not represent true labor.

49

Ballottement

(1) Movability of a floating object, such as a fetus. (2) Diagnostic technique using palpation: a floating object, when tapped or pushed, moves away and then returns to touch the examiner’s hand. (3) Passive movement of the unengaged fetus.

50

Uterine souffle or bruit

Rushing or blowing sound of maternal blood flowing through uterine arteries to the placenta

51

The funic souffle

Which is synchronous with the fetal heart rate and is caused by fetal blood coursing through the umbilical cord, may also be heard, as well as the fetus’s actual heartbeat

52

Hyperplasia

Increase in number of cells

53

Hypertrophy

Increase in size

54

Montgomery tubercles

Hypertrophied of the sebaceous (oil) glands embedded in the primary areolae

55

hCG

Human chorionic gonadotropin

56

Goodell sign

Softening of the cervix and vagina due to hypertrophy

57

Chadwick's sign

Bluish discoloration of the cervix, vagina, and labia resulting from increased blood flow. It can be observed as early as 6 to 8 weeks after conception, and its presence is an early sign of pregnancy.

58

Braxton Hicks

Contractions are sporadic uterine contractions that start about 6 weeks into your pregnancy

59

Striae gravidarum

Stretch marks

60

Physiologic anemia

Because the plasma increase is greater than the increase in red blood cell (RBC) production, there is a decrease in normal hemoglobin values (12 to 16 g/dl blood) and hematocrit values (37% to 47%).

61

Friability

Tissue easily damage

62

Melasma

Blotchy, brownish hyperpigmentation of the skin over the cheeks, nose, and forehead, especially in pregnant women with dark complexions

63

Linea Nigra

Pigmented line extending from the symphysis pubis to the top of the fundus in the midline

64

Angiomas

Commonly referred to as vascular spiders

65

diastasis recti abdominis

Abdominal muscles can separate allowing abdominal contents to protrude at the midline.

66

ptyalism

excessive salivation

67

LMP

last menstrual period

68

Lanugo

Baby hair. The younger the hairier.

69

Vernix

White cheesy stuff on their skin.

70

Folic acid

400-800 mcg/day, 0.4-0.8mg/day

71

AMA

advanced maternal age

72

Telangiectasia

Spider veins.

73

Melasma

pigmentation in the face

74

pyrosis

heartburn

75

peripartum

28 week pregnancy to 28 days life

76

perinatal

care around the baby