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Flashcards in Cardio Deck (24):

Frank-Starling law/curve

An increase in ventricular end-diastolic volume will increase stroke volume


CHF etiology: 3 factors of fetal heart development

Gene interaction, environment, chance.


Risk factors associated with CHD

- Maternal diabetes; greater if she receives insulin.
- Genetics: family hx of; chromosomal defects (Down, Williams, DiGeorge)


DiGeorge diagnosed pt can't receive...

Live vaccines


WIlliams syndrome: need to do what? why? and mostly where?

Ultra sound because of propensity of arterial stenosis in the kidneys.


Acyanotic defects

Left to right shunting (ASD, VSD)


Obstructive defects

Coarctation of the Aorta


Cyanotic defects

Tetralogy of Fallot


Tetralogy of fallot

Pulmonary stenosis
RV hypertrophy
Over-riding aorta



is the volume of blood returning to the heart, or the circulating blood volume



Refers to the resistance against which the ventricles must pump when ejecting blood


Pulmonary Congestion of blood vessels leads to

1. Tachypnea (RR>60)
2. Rrespiratory distress- intercostal retractions
3. Mild cyanosis
4. Dyspnea and orthopnea (HOB 30%)
5. Activity/feeding intolerance
6. Pulmonary edema: wheeze, dry cough


Assessment of Hypoxemia in CHF & Congenital defects

1. Cyanosis- see above
2. Shunts present—see handout
3. Polycythemia (to many red blood cells = trying to compensate) >> increased blood viscosity/ CVA risk
4. Clubbing
5. Hypercyanotic spells (“Tet Spell”) with acute r>>L shunt; caused by crying, feeding, defacating. Interventions:
a. Knee/Chest position
b. Other interventions- (O2, morphine, propanolol. Baby is not in pain, is to vasodialate)
6. Risk for infection ( Bacterial endocarditis). Lots of cardiac turbulence.


General assessments for all cardiac kids

1. Caloric demands/ increased BMR
2. Poor feeders r/t breath/suck coordination
3. Poor wt. Gain for muscle mass development
a). Preop- need some weight gain before procedure if possible.
4. Developmental delays: cognitive and motor usually can be risk factors.


Osler nodes

Red, painful intradermal nodes with white centers found on the hand and feet pads of the phalanges


Roth's spots

Retinal hemorrhages with white or pale centers.



Pinpoint, round spots that appear on the skin as a result of bleeding


Janeway lessions

Non-tender, small erythematous or haemorrhagic macular or nodular lesions on the palms or soles only a few millimeters in diameter that are indicative of infective endocarditis.


Jones criteria

The diagnosis of rheumatic fever can be made when two of the major criteria, or one major criterion plus two minor criteria.


Jones Criteria: Major s/sx

a. Carditis- NEW murmur, CHF, tachy
b. Polyarthritis
c. Chorea (involuntary movements)
d. Erythema marginatum (trunk general rash)
e. Subcutaneous nodules


Jones Criteria: Minor s/sx

a. Arthralgia
b. Fever
c. Increased sed rate
d. C-reactive protein. Mitral valve regurg


Rheumatic Fever Tx

Prevention- Penicillin for strep pharyngitis
i. Penicillin- IV therapy for acute infection
ii. Prohphylaxis- monthly IM Penicillin after infection, 5-10 years depending on involvement of carditis
iii. Saclicylates (baby aspirin), prednisone. Coronay arteries can be inflame after this episode. By taking aspirin, it helps to perfuse coronary arteries,


Kawasaki disease

Is a condition that causes inflammation in the walls of medium-sized arteries throughout the body, including the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle


Kawasaki Disease patho:

i. Small and medium size vessels
ii. Inflammation in CA>> aneurysms (15-25%) and microaneurysms of peripheral vessels
iii. Myocarditis, CHF complications, MI
iv. Acute phase- 5 out of 6 of the following:
1. Fever for 5 days or more
2. bulbar conjunctivae (puffy eyes)- exudate and inflamed
3. oral mucosa: strawberry tongue-
fissures of lips- pealing skin
4. peripheral edema with desquamation (peally skin)
5. Polymorphous rash
6. Cervical lymphadenopopathy
v. Other s/s: arthritis, GI s/s, hypercoagulopathies