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Flashcards in Elizabethan England Deck (87):

What year was Elizabeth born



Who was E brought up by

Governesses as Henry VIII had declared her illegitimate once he beheaded her mother Anne Boleyn, rarely saw her father


Which stepmother was E very close to

Katherine Howard so devastated when she was executed when she was 8


E's education

Very intelligent, could speak 5 languages at age 16, highly educated, Henry enjoyed spending time with her as she got older


What made Elizabeth have protestant views

She became close to 6th wife Catherine Parr who influenced her protestant views


When was Elizabeth restored to heir of the throne



What was Elizabeth's relationship like with her brother Edward and how did he run the country

When he became King aged 9 he became arrogant, worsening their relationship. He was a very strict protestant who introduced prayer books and lots of political instability


What happened to the throne after Edward died

He refused to name either sister as heir, instead his cousin Lady Jane Grey became queen for 9 days before being overthrown by Mary


Why did Mary resent Elizabeth

Anne had displaced her mother (Catherine of Aragon) as queen. Also hater her youth, beauty and protestant faith


When did Mary become queen and what did she do

1553 aged 37, wanted to restore Catholicism and burned any protestant that challenged her (nearly 300)


What did Mary do to Elizabeth

She was suspicious of her rebelling and imprisoned her in tower of London for 2 months, eventually E persuaded her to release her and was placed under house arrest


When was Elizabeth crowned queen

15th January 1559


Who were the royal court

Group of people who lived in or near the palace of the monarch. Consisted of members of the nobility (key servants, advisers, friends)


What did the royal court do

They entertained and advised the queen, were a public display of wealth and power


The royal court and progresses

Every summer E would go on tours with her court visiting homes of the nobility to improve relationship with public, court used 400 wagons to carry E's stuff in even her bed


Why were progresses important

Helped her financially as E didn't have much money so staying with nobles meant she would be hosted, fed and given lavish gifts


Who made up the privy council

Tended to chose most powerful nobles as members to prevent rebellion inc. leading courtiers, advisers, nobles and senior government officials


What did the privy council do

They took responsibility for day to day running of the country, met at least 3 times a week to debate issues and advise E, they oversaw law and order


What was the head of the privy council called

Secretary of state


Who were the parliament and what did they do

Made up of house of lords and commons and granted taxation, passed laws and offered advice


How many times did Elizabeth call parliament during her reign

Only 10 times


What was a Lord Lieutenant

In charge of raising and training local militia and oversaw countries defenses. Were members of the nobility


Who were Justice of the Peace

Members of local gentry, were unpaid but very high status and popular job. Had to ensure all social and economic policies were carried ou


How did Elizabeth use patronage to ensure loyalty

She gave men important jobs e.g. male courtiers political roles and gave key politicians places at court, making them feel important.
Despite it being corrupt, it caused competition and rivalry, making them loyal


What was Elizabeth's relationship like with parliament

They didn't have as much power as E and saw them as 'necessary evil', only met 13 times in 44 years. They granted her taxes all but 2 times showing she had power over them and they didn't resist


How did Elizabeth deal with MPs who made complaints

MPs began to make complaints about marriage, monopolies and religious grievances. Able to do so because of freedom of speech, E used her personality to bully MPs and imprisoned MPs who argued for freedom of speech


Religious issues between Elizabeth and parliament

Often argued over religion and group of MPs (puritan choir) went against her religious settlement and forced her into extreme protestant settlement


Financial issues between Elizabeth and parliament

House of commons had to fight against E defending right to grant her money
1601 huge monopoly crisis as she used it as a form of patronage which pushed up prices of everyday items, badly affecting the poor


The marriage question

MPs and councilors expected E to marry as the questioned women's ability to rule alone. Wanted her to marry making a good alliance with foreign power and wanted an heir to the throne


Robert Dudley- potential suitor

E's fave adviser, close friend since childhood, his wife died under suspicious circumstances so scandalous for E to marry him


King Philip of Spain- potential suitor

Had been married to Mary, Spain most powerful country in Europe so would've been useful but he was Catholic, she was protestant


Duke of Alencon and Anjou

Brother of king of France, good for relations but strong anti-French mood in Eng after massacre of French protestants so negotiations called off


Elizabeth's views on marriage

Unclear if she actually considered these marriages of just did it to please government.
She never married and was portrayed as 'Gloriana- the virgin queen'


Heirs to the throne

Henry VIII's will stated if all children die, Mary Duchess of Suffolk's children should inherit throne
E's other cousin Mary Queen of Scots had stronger claim but controversial as she was Catholic and brought up in France


Who was William Cecil

E's chief minister, a member of the gentry and former MP . Was intelligent and hard working, knew how to handle Elizabeth


Why were the 1590s a difficult deacade

Series of bad harvests- food shortages
England fighting expensive was with Spain
Dudley, Walsingham and Cecil all died
E refused to name successor until on her deathbed creating political instability


Essex rebellion 1601

Earl of Essex was son of E's cousin and a member of her privy council. Wanted him to defeat rebellion in ireladn but instead made a truce. E was furious and banned him from court and removed his sweet wine monopoly
He planned a poor rebellion and underestimated E's support and was executed. Proved E had strong support



Science + technology
Peace, power and pride


Examples of new renaissance ideas from Europe

Blood flows around body, not made by heart
First printing press brought to Eng allowing ideas to be spread more easily
New school set up offering broader curriculum
Chimneys meant houses could have 2 floors


Facts about how many could read + write

Women able to write increased by 10 fold
1/10 men could read and write at beginning of 18th century, 1/4 could by end


Who were the gentry

Land owners, 1 step below nobility and helped monarch keep control of local area


Rise of the gentry

Tudors deliberately overlooked the nobility as seen as too powerful so Gentry took their place
Dissolution on monasteries meant more land available
Growth in trade, exploration, population increasing and rising prices all allowed the gentry make their fortune


Great rebuilding

E didn't have money to build houses herself but many country houses were built to impress E on her progresses as they no longer needed defence
inc. symmetry, intricate chimneys, oak paneling etc.



Portraits used to show her as young and commanding, full of symbols
Rainbow portrait showed her as much younger and hr dress looks like angel's wings, holding rainbow- like god


What was theatre like before Elizabeth

No theatres in the country, only travelling actors who were feared by the government as were seen as a threat to law and order


When did actors become liscened

1572 leading to them becoming more professional and forming companies and theatres


Why was theatre so popular

Varying ticket prices so everyone could afford to go
rich sat in tiered galleries with roofs
poor people stood in the pit with no roof


Why were people against the theatre

Most theatres located outside of city walls in areas known for pickpockets, brothels etc so a fear that theatre would encourage crime, spread of plague and sex outside of marriage


Causes of poverty: population growth

Population increased by 43% from 1550-1600 due to increased fertility and decreased death rate, meaning fewer jobs going round and a strain on resources


Causes of poverty: inflation

Food prices increased more than wages due to increased population and bad harvests. Made worse by monopolies and bad harvest


Causes of poverty: war

Injured soldiers couldn't work and war disrupted trade which added to inflation


Causes of poverty: bad harvests

Led to food shortages and inflation, especially in 1590s, some faced famine


Causes of poverty: enclosure

Good farming land given to sheep, fewer labourers for sheep than crops so people lost jobs and land to grow and provide for families


Causes of poverty: rents

Landowners increased rent of the poor called rack-renting


Causes of poverty: closure of monasteries

They had previously helped people in hard times but now couldn't


Poor people

1/2 people labouring poor so didn't own land so 80% of wages spent on food + drink, lived in small thatched cottages, very dark
see notes


Impotent poor

Unable to provide for themselves as too old or ill to do so. Government recognised this and saw them as deserving of help


Idle poor

Also referred to as 'sturdy beggars' or vagrants. Considered dishonest and could help themselves if they wanted but just lazy. Should be punnished


Counter fiet crank

Beggars would look sad and poor by biting on soap so they'd foam at mouth and people would feel sorry for them


Baretop trickster

Women would trick men into following them to buy them a meal by removing items of clothing the man would then be beaten and robbed by her accomplices


Vagabonds act 1572

Vagrants to be whipped and hole drilled through ear. Established national poor rate for 1st time sheltering impotent poor


Poor relief act 1576

Justice of peace provided able bodied poor with wool to enable them to sell things, those who refused to work sent to prison


What was Elizabeth like at first with the poverty issue

Reluctant to accept poverty as a national problem for g'ment but did help Norwich where money was collected (alms) for the poor


Poor law 1597

Made sure everyone payed local tax called poor rate- those who refused were fined or imprisoned
This tax money paid for workouses, payment to deserving poor and parish officials
Almshouses provided for old or sick to work in
beggars had to be returned to place of birth


Success of poor law

No rebellions due to poverty during E's reign so aim achieved and lasted over 230 years
First time Eng g'ment had taken responsibility for people
However poverty levels continued to rise and some saw it as just a quick fix to prevent rebellion


Elizabethan privateers

E wanted to join exploration of 'new world' and expand Eng trade. Catholic Spain very hostile to Eng and wouldn't grant ENg sailors a licence to trade with its colonies so Eng's response were privateers who were allowed to attack Spanish ships that were carrying cargo back to Europe
Funded by rich Elizabethans who kept a share of treasure


Sir Francis Drake background info

Born in Devon around 1540, was a strict Puritan


Why did Drake seek revenge on the Spanish

1560s Drake accompanied his cousin on voyage to Caribbean and were attacked by Spanish, Drake seeked revenge for this, and hatred towards the Catholics so attacked Spanish treasure ships travelling from Mexico


What did Francis Drake capture on his revenge voyage

£40,000 worth of silver and captured 5 ports in Peru


What happened when he returned back to England

He was rich and famous and planned his next voyage (funded by rich Elizabethans). He became the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe


When did Drake circumnavigate the globe and what did he return with and what happened to him after

1577-1580, he returned with £200 million worth of treasure , E received half of this and knighted him on the deck of the Golden hind and swore him to secrecy as fear of war with Spain


Short term affects of circumnavigation

Brought back goods, money and variety, brought wealth to his sponsors
Increased hostility between Spain and England


Long term affects of circumnavigation

Became foundations on which E's later position as global superpower was built on and led to powerful navy
Made England very rich and led to establishment of colonies


Who was Walter Raleigh and what did he do

One of E's favourite courtiers so f=granted him licence to set up colony in America but attempt failed
He secretly married the queen's maids of honour so in attempt to regain her faith he led an unsuccessful expedition to search for 'city of gold'


What did people learn from Walter Raleigh

Learned from his mistakes and 4 years after E died the first successful English colony was founded -Jamestown


Why did Elizabeth create a 'middle way'

Wanted to heal divisions between Catholics and Protestants to stop unrest, so passed two laws in 1559 establishing a compromise


Act of supremacy

Re-established that CofE was independent and not ruled by the pope, made E supreme govener of this church


Act of uniformity

Attendance at Anglican services made compulsory, bible and services in English, altars replaced with communion tables etc.


Puritan opposition

Some wanted rid of all Catholic features and E banned parliament from discussing it
Archbishop of Canterbury lost his job and refused to close down puritan meetings


Catholic opposition

Some refused to attend services (known as recusants) and were fined, threat of Catholic plots increased when Mary queen of Scots arrived


Mary queen of Scots

E's cousin, Catholic, briefly married to King of France, then returned to England and married Lord Darnley but he was murdered then she married Earl of Brothwell- chief suspect in Darnley's murder


What caused Mary queen of Scots to abdicate

She was also a suspect in Darnley's murder so forced to give up the throne to her son James. She fled to Cumberland before civil war broke out hoping E would help her


What was E's response to Mary queen of Scots

She feared she would become focus of Catholic plots so kept her under house arrest in Carlisle then Bolton castle


Northern rebellion 1569

Duke of Norfolk (E's cousin) resented Cecil's power in court and sympathised with Catholics
He planned to marry Mary to make her heir, gained help from Robert Dudley but he felt too guilty and confessed all to queen


What happened after Dudley confessed

Norfolk tried to flee but captured and imprisoned, E summoned catholic earls too court but actually pushed them into rebellion + 5000 rebels gathered in the north and captured barnard castle
Hoped for help from foreign Catholics but never came as not keen on Mary


Consequences of the Northern rebellion

E reorganised council of the north, confiscated rebel land and executed northumberland + 500 rebels
Pope exocommunicated Elizabeth, his papal bull ordered catholics to disobey E's laws


Ridolfi plot 1571

Ridolfi was a Catholic Italian banker who wanted to restore catholicism by having E killed, Mary marrying Norfolk and becoming queen