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Flashcards in Causes Of WW1 Deck (46):

Great powers: Germany

New powerful country
Defeated France and taken Alsace and Lorraine
Proud of industry
Reichstag had little power
1900 became most industrial country


Great powers: France

Wanted to take revenge on G for A+L
Built up industry and army
Large overseas empire


Great powers: Britain

Most democratic country in Europe
Empire covered 1/4 of world so less interested in European affairs
Large navy


Great powers: Austria-Hungary

Undeveloped and leaders thought industry was behind them
Beginning to decline and government feared if one group tried to gain independence others would follow and do the same
Biggest threat Bosnian Serbs who A had taken over in 1908


Greatest power: Russia

Largest but most backward world power
Believed they should have influence over Slavs which included Serbs so supported them against A-H so rivalry
Wanted balkans for trade in Mediterranean


Triple alliance

Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy
1879 G and AH formed dual alliance to protect themselves from R
1882 Italy joined but didn't fully trust AH so made secret treaty with F


Triple entente

Britain, France and Russia
1894 F and R formed dual entente to protect against A-H
B in splendid isolation so not concerned but worry dual entente may be used against her so joined in 1907


Entente Cordiale

Meant F allowed B to go ahead with reforms in Egypt and B promised not to oppose any F actions in Morocco


Moroccan crisis

France wanted to gain control and B couldn't get involved
G opposed and Kaiser visited Tangier announced G supported independent M so called conference prevented F taking M
F given joint control with Spain with the M police
Kaiser failed to prevent F gaining foothold in M


Bosnian crisis 1908

Serbia wanted to unite all states under Serbian leaderships
AH opposed as would result in breakup of empire
Revolution in turkey and AH took over Bosnia
See notes


Second Moroccan crisis

1911 see notes


The arms race

1898 Kaiser ordered G navy to build up navy rapidly. B saw as direct threat
G became more threat after 1906 when both sides made dreadnoughts
B government only planned to build 4 G refused to limit number and increased spending
B had 29 G had 17 by 1914


Assassination at Sarajevo

28th June Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand and wife visited Sarajevo
Black hand gang through grenade at his car but missed
On return driver made wrong turn at that time Gavrilo Pricip took two shots killing both of them


What happened after the assassination

Austria blamed Serbia so gave 10 ultimatums that they had to accept otherwise they would declare war on Serbia
Could only accept 9 so A declared war on 28th July 1914


Why is Serbia to blame for the war

For the encouragement of the assassination and rejecting the ultimatum


Why is Austria Hungary to blame for the war

For manipulating the situation to gain an opportunity to invade Serbia


Why is Russia to blame for the war

For an irresponsible mobilisation which they must've known would provoke Germany


Why is Germany to blame for the war

For wanting war and for not accepting Russia's reassurances that the mobilisation was only against A-H
Blank cheque as well and the Schlieffen plan which turned into an offensive conflict


Why is Great Britain to blame for the war

For the naval race and the involvement in a continental war


What was the aim of the Schlieffen plan

When France and Russia became allies Schlieffen knew they would have to fight the next war on two fronts and he wanted to avoid this at all costs


What was the Schlieffen plan

G to knock F out of the war in a few weeks so the R could be fought in the east
Attack on France was a surprise and was right wing to make attack on Belgium through N.G and left wing would attack main F army from S.G
After both wings would invade through north France and capture Paris
He though this'd be over in 6 weeks


Why did the Schlieffen plan fail

Moltke (successor of Schlieffen) made right wing smaller meaning took longer to invade Belgium giving B+F more time to prepare for war and more resistance from B than expected
R prepared quicker than expected
Exhausting for soldiers who marched 30km a day
German supply lines became stretched out and central command became out of touch


What actually happened with the Schlieffen plan

When Belgium was invaded the BEF arrived extremely quickly holding up Germany
Russia mobilised in just 10 days and G was forced to withdraw troops to defend eastern boarder
G didn't take the chance to take Paris, instead decided to attack east


Battle of mons

G invaded Belgium on 3rd August and on 22nd BEF led by general French engaged with G.
F told to be cautious so ordered men to dig defensive positions near Mons canal and G commander Kluck was surprised
Kluck then engaged the BEF who were heavily outnumbered but had Lee Enfield Mark II rifle
Managed to inflict heavy casualties on G before retreating to Paris


Battle of the Marne

4th Sep G army weakened by diversions of troops to Russia, Moltke cut down eastern side of Paris towards Marne ignoring Schlieffen plan
F armies intercepted G army and battle from 5-11th Sep
F nearly defeated but eventually G retreated to river Aisne
Paris saved but heavy losses


The race to the sea

G having retreated were fighting two front war they were trying to avoid as they lacked manpower
They attempted to outflank enemy and moved north towards the English Channel
Each time they moved F+B tried block them beginning race to the sea


Battle of Ypres

BEF lost 50,000 men and G 100,000 but B held important ground and kept control of channel ports
By Nov '14 it was deadlock F tried to break through G line but failed
As 1914 ended fighting reached a stalemate


Battle for supplies at sea

22nd Sep 3 B warships were sunk by U-boats so B retreated to Scalia flow until 1915
This left North Sea free for G warships to shell Bridlington and Hartlepool



By Dec both sides digging trenches to protect themselves, at first just quickly dug holes in the ground
Then machine guns and barbed wire added and by Christmas there were lines of defensive trenches from channel coast to Switzerland
Neither had the strength to break through or would retreat- stalemate


Battle of Verdun

Attack on F fortress at Verdun planned by G chief Von Falkenhayn
Didn't expect to win just weaken F army and lead them to surrender
At start G lots of soldiers and controlled the skies
1st June G launched massive attack on Verdun by 23 got within 2.5 miles of Verdun


What happened in the battle of Verdun pt.2

G now given all it had and B launched huge attack on G further north near the Somme forcing G troops to divert releasing pressure off the French
By end of Oct F had recaptured fort but surrounding land now wasteland and battle continued until Dec


What was the original plan of the battle of the Somme

Originally planned as an attack by F with support from B but Verdun changed these plans and decided Haig would lead mainly B offensive around the river Somme


What was the aim and what were that tactics of the Somme

Aim to gain territory and draw troops away from Verdun
Haig planned huge artillery bombardment destroying G positions using mines
Cut G barbed wire and walk across no mans land carrying equipment to rebuild and defend G trenches stopping G from retaking their lost territory


What actually happened at the battle of the Some

G in high ground with view and dug-outs were deep and concrete so hard to bomb
Hard to cut wire that was 30m wide all the war along and shells were poor quality so didn't do enough damage or just failed to go off


The attack of the Somme

Began 1st July 1916 2 bombs set off under G lines
B slowly advanced giving G time to prepare
Barbed wire undamaged in many areas so B funnelled into those areas and became sitting targets 57,000 casualties on 1st day
Haig insisted on continuing feeling confident he could win but called it off on 18th November


What happened to Haig after the Battle of The Somme

Given title 'the butcher of the Somme'
He believed main objectives reached, saving Verdun and killing G best troops
He's used tanks for the the first time in war and steady capture of territory and destruction of enemy forces


What was the battle of Passchendaele and when was it

Haigs attempt to break through Flanders to the coast of Belgium to destroy German submarine pens
He incorrectly believed G morale was low
18th July 1917 huge artillery barraged ruining element of surprise


What was the Gallipoli campaign

Aim for allies to capture sea route from Europe to Russia
Winston Churchill said attack on Dardanelles straight which had access to Black Sea
This was an attack on the Turks and would help R get supplies


Naval attack

March 1915 B warship began attack on forts on Dardanelles straight but strong resistance so attack doomed
Turkey sank 3 allied ships so they decided they'd have to launch a land attack


Land attack

April B,F and ANZAC troops attacked Helles beach
T supported by G dug trenches on hills overlooking the beach
Allies captured a few trenches but clear they couldn't get rid of T
Very hot disease rampant neither side could break deadlock
Allied subs got through minefield of the straight to attack and sink T ships but main fleet never got through



Nov, frostbite, Hamilton petitioned for 90,000 more soldiers but only got 1/4 he didn't want to withdraw
Lord Kitchener visited region and decided to withdraw completed by 9th January


The war at sea

Both sides needed supplies so both vulnerable
B mounted blockade on G ports meaning G ships blocked in own ports
Threats from torpedoes and mines meant B had distant blockade basing in Scotland shutting G up in N sea
Neither side wanted to risk fleet


Why did Us enter the war

U-boat sank Lusitania killing 128 Americans in 1915 so Kaiser banned U-boats attacking US but in 1917 G became desperate restarted sub warfare
Jan 17 Zimmerman telegraph discovering G offering Mexico US territory in return for joining G cause
US declared war on Germany in April 1917


Where when and who led the battle of Jutland

North Sea
31st May 1916
B lead by Admiral Jellicoe and vice admiral Beatty
G lead by Admiral Scheer


What happened in the battle of Jutland

G initially had advantage with more powerful weapons by next morning G had fled to safety of port
B lost 14 and 6000 soldiers G lost 13 ships 2500 soldiers
G won tactical victory but B claimed strategical success
G fleet remained trapped in port for the rest of the war


Russian revolution

Feb '17 king of Prussia was forced to give up throne and and a temporary government took his place
Oct '17 second revolution brought communist government under Lenin. he surrendered unconditionally to germany in march 1918