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Flashcards in GCSE Deck (96):

By what year was Germany producing lots

By 1913 Germany was producing more iron and steel and as much coal as Britain


How many Germans voted for the SPD

1 in 3


Who were the Kaisers supporters

Advisers, ministers, chancellor, reichstag, rich business men and landowners


When did Germany unify



What is a bundesrat

State representative


How were the German states linked

Loosely linked with similar culture and language


Why did the states unify

The king of Prussia (the Kaiser) wanted to unite all the German speaking states to become more powerful


What does weltpolitik mean

World policy the kaiser wanted Germany to be a global power and to control other countries


When were the naval laws introduced

Between 1898 and 1912


When did a Serbian kill and Austrian

28th June 1914 a Serbian killed archduke Franz Ferdinand


When did Austria-Hungary declare war on Serbia

28th July 1914


When did the deadly flu epidemic Happen



Who told German politicians that they would never won the war

General Lundenorff in October 1918


When did the Kaiser flee the country

9th November 1918


Who took the kaisers place temporarily

Friedrich Ebert leader of SPD


When, where, and who came up with the treaty of Versailles

In the palace of Versailles, the French, British, and USA came up with the treaty in March 1919


When did Germany sign the treaty

28th June 1919


What were the terms of the treaty

£6.6 billion payed in reparations
Germany had to hand over its colonies to the winning countries
Rhineland became a demilitarized zone
Germany never allowed to unite with A-H again


What did the German army reduce to

100,000 soldiers, six battleships and no submarines, tanks or Air Force


What was it called when the treaty was forced upon them

diktat dictated peace


What did Friedrich Ebart do

He guaranteed freedom of speech, freedoms of religion and he declared that Germany would be a democratic republic with no Kaisers


What is communism

The idea that everyone is equal, there is no private property, there is little need for money or laws and eventually there's no need for a government


Who were the Spartacists and when did they try to take over Berlin

They were a group of communists who wanted the country to be run by small councils
6th January 1919


How did Ebart respond to the Spartacists

He sent 2000 free corps to deal with them, the arrested and killed the leaders


When did Ebart hold and election

Late Jan 1919 and his own party won


Which groups of people didn't like proportional representation

Older army generals, judges, upper-class families, rich people, rich factory owners and university professors because they longed for the 'good old days'


What were the politicians known as who ended the way

November criminals


What was article 48

Meaning he could make decisions without the reichstags approval


How often was the president elected

Every 7 years


Who chose the chancellor

The president


What was the Weimar constitution

Formal set of rules of how Germany should be governed was very democratic
meant all Germans had equal rights and all women over 20 could vote


Left wing parties

Communist party
Social Democratic Party
German Democratic Party


Right wing parties

People's Party
National people's party
National socialist German workers (Nazis)


Who supported the SPD

Mostly working class


Who supported the Nazis

Unemployed, mainly ex soldiers, some support from those who feared communists


What was a weakness of the Weimar constitution

Proportional representation


How often were the members of the reichstag elected

Every 4 years


What was the start of the Weimar Republic

On the 11th 1919 February Ebart and politicians met up in Weimar to discuss how to run the country


How did the hyperinflation crisis begin

Late 1922 Germany fell behind in reparations so in Jan 60,000 French and Belgium troops sent to the Ruhr to demand the goods they were owed
German government used passive resistance and ordered all its workers to go on strike but continued to pay them so more money needed to be printed


Negative impacts of hyperinflation crisis

People living on pensions and savings, their money was now worthless
Small businesses collapsed as by the time they bought new stock the prices had increased so much they couldn't afford it
Workers had to run from work with money to buy food before their wages were worthless


Positive impacts of the hyperinflation crisis

Those who had debts or loans could pay them back with 1 note
The rich who had land and possessions weren't affected
rich businessmen bought the bankrupt businesses


Kapp Putsch

Right winged uprising on 13th March 1920
wanted to overthrow the Wiemar republic


Red rising in the Ruhr

Workers in the Ruhr tried to start a communist revolution after Kapp fled the country
21st March the red army tried to take over many towns


What was the Munich Putsch

Hitler plotted to take over Munich with Kahr and Lossow and he got SA ready to rebel
in Oct, K+L called off the rebellion putting Hitler in bad position
8th Nov 1923 Hitler interrupted meeting that K+L were holding and locked them in there until they agreed to rebel.
next day Hitler marched through Munich thinking it would be a successful rebellion but he was met with police as Kahr had called them he was arrested


How many people died in the Munich Putsch

3 policemen and 16 Nazis


Hitler's trial and imprisonment

trial lasted 24 days sentenced to 5 years but only did 9 months


How did the Munich Putsch impact Hitler

He realised he'd have to change his strategy. the nazis would have to stand in elections and win votes so he organised:
Hitler youth, propaganda campaigns, set up SS


Why did people vote for the Nazis

Organised and looked professional
promised to never let hyperinflation happen again and cancel treaty of Versailles
reduce unemployment
blackmailed people into voting for them


From when to when did Gustav Stresseman solve some of Germany's problems

Between 1924 and 1929


What was policy 1

Introduce a new currency, the rentenmark
burned old notes however those who lost their money weren't compensated to resentful towards Wiemar republic


What was policy 2

Persuade the french to leave the ruhr so he called off the strike as the French still hadn't left
seen as week because he gave in to the French


What was policy 3

Germanys relationships with other countries
Signed Locarno pact in 1925 with Britain, France, belgium and Italy promising not tot invade


What was policy 4

Continue to pay reparations
Reparations agreed to Dawes plan in 1924 which gave Germany longer to pay back the debt
In 1929 the young plan lowered the amount paid


What was policy 5

Rebuilding the German economy
Organised big loan from USA as part of the Dawes plan


When was the wall street crash and why was this a problem for Germany

29th October 1929
USA recalled loans they had given to Germany as part of the Dawes plan


In may 1928 how many unemployed and how many seats held by Nazis

650,000 unemployed 12 seats


In march 1933 how many unemployed and how many seats held by Nazis

6,100,000 unemployed and 288 seats


When did hitler become chancellor



How were businessmen affected by the Wall Street crash

Most businesses closed but if they managed to stay open their income fell because nobody had enough money to spend


How were young people affected by the Wall Street crash

In 1933 over half of all Germans aged between 16 and 30 were unemployed


How were farmers affected by Wall Street crash

In the 20s farmers hadn't done well and by the 30s they slipped further into debt


How were factory workers affected by the Wall Street crash

40% of all factory workers were unemployed by 1932 at the same time the government cut unemployment funds to save money


What did the government do about the depression

They raised taxes, cut wages and reduced unemployment benefits, this caused the collapse of the government as SPD withdrew from coalition


How many times was article 48 used in 1930



How many times was article 48 used in 1932



Who was Bruning

Was a chancellor and tried to seize rich people's land and Hindenburg withdrew his support because he owned a lot of land and then bruning resigned


Failure of Wiemars leaders

Hindenburg, Von Papen and Schleicer were main culprits as more concerned with their own positions than manipulating democracy


In the presidential election how many votes did hitler and hindenburg get

Hindenburg: 19.4 million
Hitler: 13.4 million
It was clear the government could not run without the cooperation of the nazis


Long term bitterness

Anger about WW1 and the treaty caused bitterness which appealed to Hitler's viciousness and people supported him


Ineffective constitution

Weaknesses in constitution crippled the government and many wanted a return to dictatorship



Hitler had financial support from wealthy businessmen to fund propaganda and election campaign



This persuaded the German masses to blame the Jews for what happened and that hitler was their last hope



Hitler proposed something to everybody so people supported him


Attacks on other parties

The SA attacked Jews and those who opposed hitler


Personal qualities

Hitler was a great speaker who was a good organiser and politician


Economic depression

People wanted someone to blame for the crisis and looked for extreme solutions. Hitler offered both and people turned to him out of desperation


Recruited by Hindenburg

Hindenburg was forced to turn to hitler and so at first he offered the post of vice chancellor but hitler demanded he became chancellor


When did hitler become chancellor

30th January 1933 and Von papen was vice


What did hitler do immediately after he became chancellor

He held an election at the reichstag to make the nazis the majority party


What was the Reichstag fire

27th February 1933 Dutch communist Van der Lubbe was caught at the scene of the fire and Hitler automatically blamed the communists but they denied it and said it was a nazi plot as an excuse to make communists look bad in upcoming election


What happened the day after the fire

Hitler persuaded Hindenburg to use article 48 and pass the law 'protection of the people and the state'. This gave hitler power to arrest anyone opposing the government. many opponents arrested and SA intimidated people


What percentage of the seats did nazis win in 5th march elections and what did Hitler to to the communists

He used the state of emergency to stop the communists from taking their seats


How many seats did nazis and communists win in 5th march elections

Nazis: 288 seats
Communists: 81 seats


Why did hitler call the election

To get 2/3 majority in order to pass the enabling act


What did the enabling act allow hitler to do and how did he manage to pass it

To make his own laws without the support of the Reichstag
He promised center party that if they supported him he would restore civil liberties
He closed down all other ploitical parties meaning Nazis were the only party


When was the enabling act passed

23 march 1933


When were the trade unions closed down and who did they mainly contain

May 1933 contained mainly communists


What happened with the pope

On 20th June 1933 he signed concordat meaning hitler could do what he wanted as long as it didn't interfere with Catholicism in Germany


When was the night of the long knives and what was Hitler's problem with the SA

30th June 1934
Now that he was in control of Germany, he no longer needed SA and realised they were a threat to his control


Who was the leader of the SA and what did he want

Roehm and he wanted the SA to take control of the German army to make him more powerful that Hitler


What happened during the night of the long knives

Hitler used SS to arrest and kill SA who were having a meeting in Munich. over the next few days many were arrested and shot 200 in total including Roehm


How did hitler justify his actions

He said he 'saved the nation' and the reichstag accepted this without question because it consisted of only nazis


When did Hindenburg die

2 August 1934 aged 87 he was the only person higher up than Hitler so he immediately declared himself president and took the title Fuhrer


Who were the SS

Formed in 1925 and was the parties own police force. after the night of the long knives became the most important military group within the state


Who was the SS leader

Henrich Himmler


What was the gestapo and who was the leader

Secret police force Reinhard Heydrich
job to search out nazi opponents and had power to arrest and imprison them