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Flashcards in GCSE 2 Deck (60):

How many unemployed 1932 and 1938

1932: 5.6 million
1938: 0.4 million


Who joined the RAD and what did they have to do

All men aged 18-25 had to spend 6 months planting forests, mended hedges and dug ditches on farms


What were they given in the RAD

Free meals and only pocket money, had to wear uniforms and live in camps. Had no option but to join otherwise they wouldn't receive their unemployment benefit


Motorway scheme

In June 1933 hitler wanted to build 7000km of autobahen to link German towns and cities, gave jobs to 100,000 people part of the DAF headed by Dr Robert Ley


Who organised many of these schemes

German labour front (used to be trade union)cultivated



In 1935 all men aged 18-25 had to join the armed forces for 2 years to rebuild the armed forces that had been taken away from them in treaty


How much did the army grow by

100,000 in 1933 to 1.4 million in 1939


Chemical, coal, oil, iron, steel and iron-ore production between 1933 and 1939

Chemical and coal doubled
Oil, iron and steel trebled
Iron-ore increase by 500%
This made factory owners very rich


Why did small businesses support the nazis

Small businessmen, shopkeepers and self-employed craftsmen supported the nazis because they promised them much


What happened to department stores

Nazis passed a law to ban new department stores and stop existing ones growing to enable craftsmen to control their trade


Who weren't included in unemployment figures

Jews who'd been dismissed from jobs (all after they were not longer German citizens)
Women who'd left work with financial offers from the state
Anyone in concentration camps


Minister of economics

Hiamlar Schacht was appointed as soon as hitler became chancellor


What did Schacht do

He bought raw goods from other countries which was expensive. He signed deals with South America and south-east Europe to get materials in return for German goods


What was the result of Schachts plan

Went well for short time but after the exchanges were happening too slowly so he was sacked


Who replaced Scacht and what was his plan

Herman Goering in 1936 introduced the four year plan to increase military production which created more jobs in factories etc.


What was the result of the four year plan

Targets weren't met in oil production and Germany still weren't ready for the war it would become involved in from 1939


What was self-sufficiency

Nazis wanted Germany to stop trading with other countries and rely on own resources so would have to find alternate options for the goods they could no longer find


What did the lack of goods mean

It was impossible to have total self-sufficiency so it meant that Hitler had to invade other countries to get the goods


Nazis and the farmers positive

Farmers turned to Hitler because he promised to help and he needed them
He rewarded them by reducing taxes and guaranteed their land if they went into debt
Farmers welcome the law because it meant their farm would be secure for generations


Nazis and the farmers negative

Each hen had to lay 65 eggs per year
Laws stopped farmers from dividing up land to children meaning there children werent allowed to inherit land


How much of the population were involved in agriculture

Around 30% of the population were involved in agriculture


First few years of the war

During first few years they were doing well. 1940 Hitler defeated 6 European countries and goods from conquered countries were sent to Germany


Later parts of the war

In 1941 hitler attacked Russia but because it was so cold their guns froze and were forced to stop
Russian army began to push them back to Germany


Battle at Stalingrad

Over 80,000 Germans died and 90,000 surrendered
When America joined Britain it was clear they were doomed by 1944



Sacrifices were made for the soldiers by November 1939 food and clothing were rationed
Limited to 1 egg per week


Armaments minister

Albert Speer made armaments minster in 1942 and prepared the country for total war meaning everything was focused on making weapons and growing food for soldiers



Anything that didn't contribute to the war was closed down
Factories stayed open longer
By 1944 7 million workers were brought in from countries Germany had conquered to work as slave labour in the factories



From 1942 Britain and America bombed cities meaning no electricity, water or transport causing people to look for safe palaces as refugees
Thousands of deaths


Use of radio

There were more radios in Germany than people and hitler made broadcasts which were listened to at workforces, pupils and families


Control of the arts

Works of 2500 writers were banned and SA burned millions of books. Jewish composers weren't allowed to be played
Nazis disapproved of most forms of modern art


Control of the universities

The government interfered with scientific research in unis
Several physicist fled from the country in the 30s e.g. Albert Einstein.


Control of the press

All newspapers come from nazi approved agencies and journalists were told what to write in their articles



1936 Berlin Olympics were used for propaganda by attempting to prove the superiority of the master race. Only partly successful because of the black athletes taking part


Two organisations within DAF

The beauty of labour
Strength through joy


The cost

All had human rights reduced, many sent to camps, arrested, mistreated and or executed


School systems under Nazi control

Use it indoctrinate the youth.
'Knowledge is to ruin my men'
Boys did chemistry girls had sex education
In history French were seen as enemy and textbooks were rewritten



Forced to have training and had to put Nazi ideas in their lessons. They had to be part of the German teachers league


When were women in top jobs sacked



When was the German woman's league set up and what was it

1933 and was set up to coordinate all women's group under nazi control. By 1939 had 6 million members


What happened in 1935 to women in nazi germany

Marriage law required certificate of 'fitness to marry' before marriage licence issued
Blood protection law- marriage to Jews, black people and gypsies was forbidden


How may births in 1933



How many births in 1939

1.4 million


Mothers cross



Law for the encouragement of marriage

Newly weds got a government loan of 1000 marks which encouraged them to have more children


How were germanys christians divided

1/3 Catholics
2/3 Protestants


Why did some christians support Hitler

Nazis said they believed in the importance of marriage, the family and moral values.
Christians feared communism
Hitler promised to respect the Catholic Church


Nazis and the Catholic Church

At first he cooperated (concordat) but felt that they looked up to the pope more than him so he arrested catholic priests and closed down catholic youth clubs and schools


What statement did the pope release about hitler

In 1937 he issued a statement 'with burning anxiety' saying the Nazis were 'hostile to christ'


Nazis and the Protestant church

Some wanted to see their church under nazi control and these were known as 'German Christian's' their leader was Ludwig Müller who became first Reich bishop in September 1933


Nazis and other religious groups

1/3 Jehova whiteness were killed because they refused to join the army


What were the Edelweiss pirates and what did they do

Started 1936 after Nazi youth obligation stepped up
Collection of rebel groups across country by listening to jazz music
Thought responsible for anti-Nazi graffiti and British anti-Nazi propaganda


What type of people joined the Edelweiss pirates

Ages 16-18 mostly working class men and women who refused into submission wore checked shirts and an Edelweiss flower


What were the swing youth and what did they do

Mostly established in Hamburg in 1935-36
Young people who wanted to rebel and listen to swing and jazz music they refused to join Hitler youth 40-70 of them were sent to concentration camps


What type of people joined Swing youth

Usually middle or upper class aged 14-18
Girls wore their hair long and lots of makeup
Boys wore long jackets, dress shirts and flamboyant scarves


Who were the white rose movement and what did they do

Led by Hans and Sophie Scholl based in university of Munich from 1942 started anonymous leafleting campaign telling people to rebel
6 different leaflets were made


What happened to the white rose movement

They got caught in Munich and Hans and Sophie were killed Hans' last words were 'long live freedom'


What happened with the July bomb plot

20th July 1944
In conference room at Rastenburg Von Stauffenburg had bomb in briefcase
12:42 bomb exploded hitler wasn't killed


Communist resistance

Hitler had arrested many communist party members and communists tried to organise strikes or get people to stand up against the nazis


Social democrats resistance

Voted against the Enabling act
Once they were banned those who stayed printed illegal newspapers, many were caught and arrested


Who were the Kreisau circle

Group of men who opposed the Nazis and met at an estate called kreisau planned to remove Hitler from power