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Flashcards in Power and the people Deck (69):

How was the medieval society structured

Built on feudal system meaning King ruled the country but granted land to nobles (barons) who provided services in return e.g. loyalty and maintaining law and order


How did people expect King John to be

Strong and a good leader like his father however he was actually a poor leader of war


What caused the Magna Carta to be created

John caused unrest among barons by raising taxes to pay for wars, in return they presented a list of demands (m.c)


What were the main demands of the Magna Carta and how did John respond

Mainly about taxation and unfair unrest, he refused to accept demands and went to civil war and barons won


When was the Magna Carta signed



How was the Magna Carta significant in the short term

Didn't solve problem as he went back on his word however the fact that these issues were raised shows barons were thinking about their human rights


How was the Magna Carta significant in the long term

As more people became free, it applied to more people, it became a symbol of peoples power and was often referred back to


Relationship between Henry (successor of John) and Simon De Montfort

1232 Simon made promise of loyalty to Henry and faught wars on his behalf, Henry put him on trial several times for his actions but let him off


What led to Simon capturing the King and his son

Henry refused to sign the provisions of Oxford (requested by Simon) which would've let the barons have more power over decision making. As a result the Barons wanted a civil war against the King and Simon agreed, they captured the king


How did Simon De Montfort die

Simon was effectively in charge but many thought him too powerful and turned against him, to raise support he started the great council but barons angry as he didn't ask their permission. Barons switched sides and Simon killed in battle of Evesham


Significance of Simon De Montfort

His parliament was first to include commoners which encouraged Henry to do the same
Became a symbol of democratic principles that were more fully realised hundreds of years later


What caused the peasants revolt

Richard II introduced poll tax meaning everyone had to pay 1 shilling 4 pence for their house in tax and in 1381 villager is Kent and Essex attacked a tax collector after refusing to pay the tax


What did the rebels do after attacking the tax collector

20,000 peasants rebelled and freed rebel priest John Ball from prison and asked Wat Tyler to be leader.
They burned records, attacked clerks and killed the archbishop of canterbury


What happened when the rebels reached London

They continued burning things down
Tyler met with the King and demanded for all men to be free and equal but was killed by a supporter of the King
To prevent riot, the King agreed but went back on his word


When was the peasants revolt



Significance of the peasants revolt

First time commoners had rebelled against royal powers, scaring King and his nobles
Peasants were never taxed so heavily again and wage continued to rise


What caused the Pilgrimage of Grace

Henry VIII angry with pope for refusing his divorce so set up on church of England and stopped paying the pope taxes, dissolved monasteries and sold monastery land to the gentry limiting church's power and making Henry rich


What did the people do in response to Henry VIII

1536 uprising in Lincolnshire led by Lawyer Robert Aske, called a pilgrimage as it was peaceful. they demanded England return to Catholicism, 8000 pilgrims captured towns


What did Henry do in response to the Pilgrimage

Sent Catholic Duke to negotiate, assuring them the King would listen and invited Aske to his house, rebels went home.
Jan 1537 northern uprising so as a warning 74 rebels hanged and Aske executed


Significance of the Pilgrimage of Grace

No more religious rebellions took place during Henry's reign and Henry now had full control of the country (absolute monarch)


When was the Pilgrimage of Grace



Religious causes of the English civil war

Strong anti-Catholic mood in country after Henry
Many accused Charles of trying to unite Catholics and Protestants after new Catholic prayer book introduced
Also accused of favouring Catholics as he was married to one


Political causes of the English civil war

Charles believed in Divine right so didn't call parliament for 11 years, was forced to call it in 1640 to raise taxes to fund wars against the Scots who opposed new prayer book


Economical causes of the English civil war

MPs didn't trust Charles as he'd raised taxes without parliament for long time so demanded parliament take control of the army. They drew up the Grand Remonstrance of complaints and demands


What was ship money

A way for Charles to make money. He was entitled to impose ship money on coastal countries during time of war to help protect them and pay for the navy


What problems did ship money cause

Many refused to pay, causing unrest, those who refused were sent untried to prison e.g. John Hampden


What did parliament demand from Charles

Abolition of ship money, parliaments control of army and parliament being the only ones able to dissolve parliament, also grand remonstrance (204 clauses)


How did the civil war begin

Due to such opposition, Charles forced to leave London and set up battle standard in Nottingham. Civil war began in 1642


Who created the new model army and when

Oliver Cromwell in 1645, also known as 'Army of God'


What was the new model army

Fully professional army, many soldiers and strong religious views, though god was on their side
This army made the decisive breakthrough in the war and captured the king


Charles' trial

MPs divided over how to treat Charles, army rejected 300 MPs leaving only a Rump who put the king on trial


Charles' execution

He was found guilty of high treason and executed on 30th January 1649


What did Charles' execution mean

Charles was the first King that's been abolished to not be replaced by a monarch, England declared a commonwealth from 1649-1660


What did Oliver Cromwell do straight after the execution

He ended Catholic rebellion in Ireland, imprisoned Levellers and marginalised Diggers.
By 1650 Cromwell and army leaders in control of parliament and the country


What made Cromwell unpopular

He tried hard to establish stable rule but his strict puritan rule made him unpopular as he closed theatres, banned Christmas and stopped women wearing makeup


How was the monarchy restored

The 'Glorious revolution' in 1688 saw William of Orange (married to Charles' niece) become King as long as he ruled along side parliament


What was the American revolution

British government wouldn't agree to America's demand of 'no taxation without representation' so 12 American colonies met in Philadelphia and issued a declaration of independence from Britain in 1783


Significance of the American revolution

British empire grew and took over Australia, New Zealand and India, also industrial revolution
First time colony had rejected rule by a European power and influenced French revolution


What were rotten boroughs

Areas that had very few people living there yet still had MPs whereas Birmingham had many people living there but no MP


What was wrong with the electoral system in the early 1800s

Corrupt and out of date, rotten boroughs, only people who owned property could vote and no secret ballot so people often intimidated or bribed


When was the Peterloo Massacre



What happened in the Peterloo Massacre

After Nepoleonic wars, government ^ corn prices so meeting held in Manchester to hear Henry Hunt call for reformation of parliament
Was peaceful but scared authorities so soldiers sent ans killed 11 people, injuring 400
Government then introduced Six Acts banning meetings of more than 50 people. asking for reform became treason


When was the reform act



What was the reform act

Radicals felt if contributing to the economy then should be able to vote so Lord Grey introduced R.A but was blocked by house of Lords but became scared of revolution so passed the reform bill


What did the Reform act mean

Redistributed MPs (removed rotten boroughs) so industrial towns now represented, merchants and factory owners could vote but still had to own property to vote so working class unhappy


What did the Chartists demand

Votes for all men over 21, secret ballots, equal electoral districts, payments for MPs etc.


Were the Chartists successful

They presented their Great Petition to parliament in 1848 claiming they had 5 million signatures but many were forged. Was never agreed to by the government


What were the corn laws

Government introduced corn laws making bread expensive which helped the landowners but hurt the poor


Who were the anti-corn law league

They used pamphlets and meetings to protest. Were best organised protest group ever
Bad harvests led to famine in 1845 allowing the p.m to convince parliament to repel corn laws in 1846


What did Robert Owen do to improve factory conditions

Introduced 8 hour day and opened schools for child workers


What did Titus Salt do to improve factory conditions

He built a whole town for his workers


What did Lord Shaftesbury do

He was an MP and spent his life campaigning for reform and was asked to lead factory reform in 1833
Passed factory act, mines act and became leader of ragged schools union which educated poorer children


How did workers help themselves in the 19th century

Friendly societies- every member contributed each week then drew out money if they hit hard times
Trade societies- specialist craftsmen organised into these groups to control quality and maintain prices
violence- some workers destroyed machines that took their jobs


What were the combination acts

Passed by government in 1800 preventing workers and employers combining
Robert Owen tried to start a trade union combining workers and employers but it failed however worried the government


Who were the Tolpuddle Martyrs

1834, 6 farm workers in Tolpuddle tried to form trade union when employer cut their wages
Arrested as made their members sign path which was illegal, all sentenced to 7 years in Australia
200,000 people attended a protest in London demanding their release
Was granted and was a turning point


Master and Servants Act 1823

Said it was illegal to break contract with employer i.e. go on strike and this was used to weaken unions


When was education made compulsery



When was the secret ballot introduced



Match girl's strike

Annie Besant helped girls working in match factory who weren't being payed enough, poor working conditions (phossy jaw). She helped formulate list of demands and took 50 of them to parliament to demand fairer wage
After 5 weeks most demands met, first time unskilled women had gone on strike and won


Formation of Labour party

Formed in 1893 as result of strikes. Before this workers tended to vote for liberal party but they weren't doing enough


General strike 1926

After the war, mines given back to owners, demand for coal fell and wages decreased, working hours increased so TUC called general strike which lasted 9 days, after union membership fell dramatically and strike failed.
Sympathy strikes and picketing were banned in 1927


Union decline

1979 Margaret Thatcher became conservative p.m and introduced laws reducing union power. She banned flying pickets and fine unions for losses


Miner's strike 1984-85

1984 NCB announced they were closing 20 mines resulting in 20,000 jobs lost
Arthur Scargill (leader of NUM) called for strike in the mines still open
Strike lasted 1 year and cost £3 billion and many mining villages left permanently scarred


In the Victorian era, how were women viewed

Women belonged at home and working-class women expected to work and do everything at home
Law favoured men who could file for divorce, own property and most could vote



Formed in 1897 (NUWSS) led by Millicent Fawcett
Used peaceful methods; marches, meetings and petitions
Gained support from many MPs but were always defeated and some thought progress too slow



1903 Emmeline Pankhurst broke away from NUWSS and formed Suffragettes, took direct action; smashed windows, heckled at meetings, set fire to post boxes
Belived in 'Deeds not words'
Many thought they were too extreme and they lost some support


Women during the war

Suffragettes suspended campaign, encouraging women to help with the war effort
War changed attitudes and 1918 women over 30 could vote


Why was the vote not given to women over 21

There would be too high women : men ratio as so many young men died during the war


Dagenham strike

1968 Women at ford factory went on strike as only paid 85% of what men are for same job
Had no support from colleagues so persuaded local union for support and other factories joined in the strike, lasted 3 weeks and then earned 92% of men