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Flashcards in Emergencies Deck (38):

What do you do when an emergency exists or is imminent?

Pursue the most appropriate course of action (conform as nearly
as possible to instructions in .65) report immediately to


An emergency can be defined as either ___ or ___.

• Distress- a condition of being threatened by serious and or
imminent danger and of requiring immediate assistance
• Urgency- a condition of being concerned about and of requiring
timely but not immediate assistance-a potential distress


Define May Day repeated 3 times

• Distress condition


Define Pan Pan repeated 3 times

Urgency condition


What do you do if these phases are not used and you are unsure that
a situation constitutes an emergency?

• Handle it as though it were an emergency (most emergencies
are declared in plain language by the pilot)


Obtain enough information to handle the emergency ___

Intelligently and base your decision as to what type of assistance
is needed on the information and requests from the pilot who is
authorized to determine a course of action


Consider an emergency to exist when any of the following occurs:

• Emergency is declared by pilot, facility personnel, officials
responsible for operation of the aircraft
• There is an unexpected loss of radar contact and radio
communications with IFR or VFR aircraft
• Reports indicate- forced landing has been made or is imminent,
crew has abandoned that aircraft or is about to do so
• Emergency radar beacon response has been received (7700)
• Need for ground rescue appears likely
• ELT signal is heard or reported


When pilot requests or controller deems necessary, enlist services of:

Available radar facilities, military


What is the ARTCC responsible for in an emergency?

Receiving and relaying all pertinent ELT signal information to
appropriate authorities


What is FSS’s responsibility in am emergency situation?

• Serves as a central point for collecting and disseminating
information on overdue or missing VFR aircraft
• Must notify the center about VFR aircraft emergency to allow
provision of IFR separation if necessary


What is the responsibility of the facility in communication with the
aircraft in distress?

• Handle the emergency
• Coordinate and direct activities of assisting facilities
• May transfer responsibility to another facility only if better
handling will result


What is the controllers responsibility?

• Forward data about the aircraft in distress to the center whose
area the emergency exists
• When a foreign carrier is involved notify the ARTCC serving the
departure or destination airports when either point is in the US
for relay to aircraft operator


All pertinent ELT signal information shall be forwarded to the
appropriate authorities by the?



When should you start providing assistance?

When enough information has been obtained upon which to act


What are the minimum information requirements to handle an

A/C ID, nature of the emergency, pilots desires


After initiating action, obtain what from the pilot as necessary?

Altitude, fuel remaining in time, pilot reported weather, pilot
capability for IFR flight, heading since last known position,
airspeed, navigational equipment capability, NAVAID signals
received, visible land marks, aircraft color, number of people on
board, point of departure and destination, emergency equipment
on board


When should you request the aircrafts position?

Pilot has not given this information, aircraft is not visually sighted
or displayed on the radar


What are the emergency frequencies?

121.5 and 243.0


What frequency should an emergency aircraft be on?

Keep aircraft on initial contact frequency. Change frequency only
when there is a valid reason


When an aircraft is not radar identified and declares an emergency
assign a code of?



What should be considered when recommending an emergency

Remaining fuel in relation to airport distance, Weather
conditions, Airport conditions, NAVAID status, Aircraft type, Pilots
qualifications, Vectoring or homing capability to the emergency
airport, Information derived from any automated emergency
airport information


Coordinate all efforts possible to assist any aircraft believed to be..?

Overdue, lost, or in emergency status


What are some examples of unusual situations?

Volcano ash clouds, VFR aircraft in weather difficulty, bird strike,
other non routine events


What should you do when an ELT is heard or reported?

Notify supervisor (sup initiated coordination), obtain any
pertinent information such as time, altitude, location etc, solicit
assistance of other aircraft operating in the signal area


When should you consider an aircraft overdue and issue an ALNOT?

Neither communications nor radar contact can be established
and 30 minutes have passed since (ETA over specified or
compulsory reporting point in your area or clearance limit in your
area OR clearance void time)


What should you do if you have reason to believe an aircraft is over
due prior to 30 minutes?

Take appropriate action immediately (center whose area the
aircraft is first overdue/unreported will make this determination)


What happens to IFR traffic that could be affected by an overdue or
unreported aircraft?

• Must be restricted or suspended unless radar separation is used
• Facility must restrict/suspend IFR aircraft for a period of 30 mins
following (time at which approach clearance was delivered to
pilot, EFC time delivered to pilot, Arrival time over NAVAID
serving destination airport, Current estimate facility or pilot
whichever is later (appropriate en route NAVAID or fix, NAVAID
serving destination airport, Release time and if issued clearance
void time))


In addition to routing to the regional office operations center for the
area in which the facility is located, you also must_____ for an
overdue/unreported aircraft?

Issue and ALNOT to all ARTCCs 50 miles either side of the route
of flight from last reported position to the destination


When is an ALNOT cancelled?

The aircraft has been located or search has been abandoned


When is normal air traffic control resumed?

After the 30 minute suspension has expired if operators or pilots
of other aircraft concur (concurrence must be maintained for 30
minutes after the suspension period has expired


What is done when communications fail?

• Air traffic control is based on anticipated pilot action
• Use all appropriate means available to reestablish
communications with the aircraft


What can be done to reestablish communications?

• NAVAID voice features
• Flight services stations
• Other aircraft
• Aeronautical Radio Incorporated ARINC
• Emergency frequency if warranted)


Request aircraft to acknowledge clearances and answer questions

• Squawk ident, squawk 7600, squaw other than appropriate
stratum code, squawk stand by (allow sufficient time to ensure
change was caused by pilot action)
• Radar associate controller may also coordinate with other
controllers to re establish communications


What should be done if communications have not been established or
re established after 5 minutes?

• Consider the aircrafts activity to be possibly suspicious
• Notify your supervisor who will give further instructions


What should you expect the pilot to do in the event of
communications failure? Route wise

• Squawk 7600
• If VFR- precedes VFR and land as soon as practicable (either
when failure occurs or VFR is encountered)
• IFR during a Vector- proceed IFR via routing last assigned, direct
to fix route or airway specified in vector clearance
• In absence of an assigned route in IFR- routing advised to
expect in a further clearance
• Absence of assigned and expected route- route filed in flight


What should you expect the pilot to do in the event of
communications failure? Altitude wise

• Maintain the highest of the following altitudes for the route
segment being flown (last assigned, MIA, altitude/FL ATC
advised to expect)


What should you expect the pilot to do in the event of
communications failure? After clearance limit

• Depart clearance limit:
• If an approach fix- as close as possible to either EFC or ETA
• Other than approach fix- EFC or upon arrival at the fix so as to
commence approach as close as possible to ETA


What should you expect the pilot to do in the event of
communications failure? To re establish communications

• Attempt to reestablish communications with FSS or ARINC or on
previously assigned frequency and monitor the NAVAID voice