End of Year Exam Review Period 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in End of Year Exam Review Period 2 Deck (75)
1

an account by someone who witnessed an event; examples include: letters, diaries, court documents, etc.

primary source

2

Rivers, valleys, mountains, and deserts are examples of

physical features

3

Early people would look for a location near enough __________________ and ________________ as they decided where to settle.

food, water

4

Farming allowed people to build permanent ______________.

settlements

5

List three materials that people used to make clothing and cloth.

wool, plant fibers, animal skins

6

What was the Law of the Twelve Tables?

Rome's first written law code

7

_______ were built around cities to protect the inhabitants from attack.

walls

8

an account of an event created by someone who did NOT witness the event; examples include textbooks and encyclopedia articles

secondary source

9

Societies with many natural _____________ could build cities and armies and develop trade.

resources

10

Using large animals greatly improved the ability of people to __________, which increased their chances of survival.

farm

11

Despite the growth of cities, Mesopotamian society was still based on ___________.

agriculture

12

The army of __________ defeated all the city-states of Sumer and conquered northern Mesopotamia.

Sargon

13

A king known as ___________ became a legendary figure in Sumerian literature.

Gilgamesh

14

Sumerians believed that the ________ could bring a good harvest or a terrible flood.

gods

15

Menes wore a double crown to symbolize ____________.

his rule over Upper and Lower Egypt

16

Why did the Egyptians fill tombs with art, jewelry, and other treasures?

for the afterlife

17

Pyramids are ________ that were built for the ________.

tombs, pharaohs

18

a series of rulers from the same family

dynasty

19

Ramses the Great is remembered as a great ___________ and a great ___________.

warrior, builder

20

What did Shi Huangdi do that shows he was a follower of legalism?

created strict laws and harsh punishments

21

What was the effect of all people in China using the same coins and the same writing system?

trade became easier

22

Why did Shi Huangdi have the Great Wall of China built?

protection from invaders

23

“Rule of the people” describes which type of government?

democracy

24

Name the type of government that started in Athens.

democracy

25

Explain why it was not possible for most juries to come to a tie.

odd number of members

26

What is the name for the type of democracy that allows citizens to directly participate in the government?

direct democracy

27

What did lyric poets do while reciting their poems?

played the lyre

28

Name the leader who founded (started) the Persian Empire.

Cyrus the Great

29

Why was Darius angry with the Greeks?

they aided a rebellion

30

What were Spartan boys trained to be?

soldiers

31

Why did Spartan women have some rights and freedoms that other Greek women didn’t have?

men often away at war

32

What is the name of Philip’s son who took over as leader after Philip’s death?

Alexander

33

Why did Alexander stop expanding the empire into India?

soldiers were tired

34

What was the cause of Alexander’s death?

sickness

35

What is the name of the famous building that was built on the Athenian acropolis?

Parthenon

36

What did philosophers believe the human mind could do?

think, explain, understand life

37

Name the group of people who challenged the idea that the actions of gods and goddesses caused events in the world.

philosophers

38

What stops one part of government from having more power than the others?

checks and balances

39

At first, Rome’s laws weren’t written down. Why were people unhappy about it?

didn't want to break laws they didn't know about

40

Where was the Law of the Twelve Tables displayed?

Forum

41

What is the name for the series of wars between Rome and Carthage?

Punic Wars

42

Explain how arches allow structures to last for a long time.

strong

43

What was the main purpose of Roman roads?

military use

44

Before burying their dead, the Egyptians would preserve the bodies as __________.

mummies

45

When was King Tutankhamen’s tomb discovered and why is it important?

1922, it wasn't robbed

46

What was the Hebrew’s religion called?

Judaism

47

the belief in one god

monotheism

48

people who are said to receive messages from God to share with others

prophets

49

Philip was able to defeat the Greeks because the Greeks refused to ____________ to fight against Philip.

join together

50

What did the plebeians do that caused the patricians to change the government?

formed a council and elected their own officials

51

After the Gracchus brothers were killed, Romans began to see that _________ could be used as a __________.

violence, political weapon

52

Hindus belief that if a person has good _________, they will be born into a higher caste in the next life.

karma

53

Many people from the lower classes liked the Buddha because he was opposed to the __________________.

caste system

54

people who work to spread their religious beliefs

missionaries

55

The Zhou kings believed that ________ gave them the power to rule.

heaven

56

Which Chinese belief system taught that it was important to live in harmony with nature?

Daoism

57

Because silk was popular in Rome, China became __________.

wealthy

58

Name the philosopher who wanted Romans to support the Senate.

Cicero

59

After Pompey asked Caesar to give up power, Caesar led his army across the Rubicon River into ___________.

Italy

60

The agora was a marketplace that was also used for ____________ and ____________ meetings.

political, religious

61

Why did the Spartans think it was important for women to be strong and healthy?

to have strong, healthy children

62

Italy is surrounded by water on three sides so it is a ____________.

peninsula

63

Who was the first ruler to have a permanent army?

Sargon

64

Priests were important in Sumerian society because Sumerians believed they could communicate with the ___________.

gods

65

How long ago was the year 300 BC?

2317 years ago

66

Menes united the two kingdoms that were called __________ Egypt and _________ Egypt.

Upper, Lower

67

List the natural barriers that protected Egypt from invaders.

deserts, cataracts, seas

68

What was the occupation (job) of 80% of Egyptians?

farmer

69

Egypt conquered Kush and controlled it for many years. How did this affect Kushite culture?

It became more like Egyptian culture.

70

Define scribe.

writer

71

What was discovered in 1799 that allowed scholars to understand hieroglyphics?

Rosetta Stone

72

What did the Egyptians believe happened to a person’s ka after the person died?

became a spirit

73

Cincinnatus was a farmer who became Rome’s most famous ______________.

dictator

74

According to legend, the first king of Rome was ____________.

Romulus

75

The part of the Christian Bible that tells about Jesus is called the ___________________.

New Testament