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Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (73)
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61

SGLT-2 inhibitors (canagliflozin)

MOA: blocks reabsorption of glucose in prox collecting tubule

Use: Type 2 DM

ADRs: UTIs and yeast infections due to glucosuria

62

alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

Names: acarbose, miglitol

MOA: inhibits intesinal brush border alpha glucosidases, delaying glucose absorption and decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia

Use: type 2 DM

63

Propylthiouracil and methimazole

MOA: block thyroid peroxidase, inhibiting oxidation and organification of iodine and thus inhibiting thryoid hormone synthesis. PTU also blocks peripheral conversion of T4 to T3

Use: Hyperthyroidism. PTU used in pregnancy because methimazole is possible teratogen

ADRs: agranulocytosis, aplasatic anemia

64

ADH antagonists

Names: Conivaptan, tolvaptan, demeclocycline

MOA: block ADH receptor

Use: SIADH

ADR: demeclocycline is of tetracycline family and so can cause bone and teeth abnormalities

65

Octreotide

MOA: somatostatin analogue

Use: acromegaly, carcinoid syndrome, gastrinoma, glucagonoma, esophageal varices

66

Cinacalcet

MOA: sensitizes parathyroid gland to calcium, decreasing PTH

Use: primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism

67

Bromocriptine

MOA: dopamine agonist

Use: hyperprolactinemia

68

Central DI: damage to pituitary vs hypothalamus

Damage to pituitary or infundibulum causes only transient DI because hypothalamic axons regenerate and hypertrophy. Damage to hypothalamic neurons results in permanent DI

69

Acetyl coA carboxylase

Fatty acid metabolism enzyme: converts acetyl coA to malonyl coA

70

Glycerol kinase

Part of gluconeogenesis from triglycerides

71

Parathyroid Ca++ sensing receptors

Transmembrane G protein coupled receptors

72

Neurophysins

Carrier proteins for oxytocin and vasopressin

73

glucagon receptor activates

Acts through Gs coupled receptor. Binds to receptor, alpha subunit releases GDP and binds GTP so can dissociate. Gs activates adenylate cyclase, which converts ATP to cAMP. cAMP activates PKA which phosphorylates serine/threonine residues in enzymes to activate or deactivate the,