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Flashcards in Endocrine Anatomy Deck (35):
1

What is the Infundibulum/Pituitary Stalk?

Protrusion from the Hypothalamus, which sends signals to the Posterior part of the Pituitary Gland.

2

What is the purpose of the connections between the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland?

Hypothalamus Neurons secrete Releasing or Inhibitory Hormones, which stimulate/inhibit the Anterior Pituitary to increase/decrease hormone release.

Travel through the bloodstream in the Hypophyseal Portal Veins to the Second Capillary Bed in the Anterior Pituitary Gland.

3

What is the difference between Secretory and Non-Secretory Disease?

Secretory Disease: Overproduction of a Hormone
Non-Secretory Disease: Underproduction of a Hormone.

4

What embryological tissue is the Pituitary Stalk and the Posterior Pituitary Gland derived from?

Neuroectoderm

5

From what structure is the Anterior Pituitary Gland embryologically derived from?

Ectoderm, which then forms Rathke’s Pouch

6

What are the 3 components of the Anterior Posterior Gland?

1. Pars Distalis
2. Pars Tuberalis
3. Pars Intermedia

Pars Nervosa is Posterior

7

Where is the Pituitary Gland situated in the Cranium?

Midline structure in the pituitary fossa, within the Sella Turcica, of the sphenoid bone.

Surrounded by Dura Mater

8

What structures surround the Pituitary Gland?

Oculomotor Nerves
Trochlear Nerves
Abducens Nerves
Ophthalmic and Maxillary Divisions of Trigeminal Nerves
Internal Carotids

Susceptible to impingement

9

What structure does the Pituitary Gland sit within?

Venous Sinuses

10

What structure does the Pituitary Gland sit below?

Optic Chiasm

11

What visual defect does a Pituitary Adenoma cause via impingement of the Optic Chiasm?

Bitemporal Hemianopia

12

What is Dura Mater?

Tough, fibrous covering (meninges) of the Brain that is adherent to the internal aspects of all the
bones of the Cranial Vault and covers all the areas of the Fossa.

13

Venous Sinuses are veins. True/False?

False.
Tubes containing pools of venous blood.

14

What is the name of the dura mater forming a roof over the Pituitary Fossa?

Diaphragm Sellae

15

What is the Blood Supply to the Adrenal Glands?

The Right and Left Superior Suprarenal Arteries, which arise from the Celiac Trunk
The Right and Left Middle Suprarenal Arteries, which arise from the Abdominal Aorta itself
The Right and Left Inferior Suprarenal Arteries, which arise from the Renal Arteries

16

What is the name of the narrow connecting band that connects the right and left lobe of the Thyroid Gland?

Isthmus

17

What fascia is the Thyroid Gland surrounded by?

Pretracheal fascia

18

What cartilages does the Thyroid Gland attach to?

Thyroid and Cricoid Cartilages

19

Do Thyroid Gland Swellings move with swallowing?

Yes, due to attachment to Trachea in addition to cartilages and close relationship with larynx.

20

What are the Platysma Muscles?

Muscles of Facial Expression that lie within the Superficial Cervical Fascia.

21

What is the Innervation of the Platysma Muscles?

CN VII

22

What are the Functions of the Platysma Muscles?

Movement of the Lower Lip and Jaw (Inferiorly and Sideways)
Causes double chin

23

What is the Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid Gland?

Extension of the Thyroid Glandular Tissue all the way up to the Hyoid Bone*, where it attaches most superiorly, and this is known as the Pyramidal Tissue.

24

What are Embryological Thyroid Problems encountered?

Failure of Descent (Lingual Thyroid)
Excessive Descent
Thyroglossal Ducts

25

What are the 3 Main Fascial Compartments of the Neck?

Pretracheal Fascia
Investing Fascia
Prevertebral Fascia

26

What is the Retropharyngeal Space?

Blind Pocket posterior to the Pharynx (throat) whose fascia is continuous with that of the Mediastinum in the Thorax, meaning that infection could spread to the Mediastinum by travelling through the Fascia.

27

In which cervical fascial compartment are the Sternocleidomastoid and Trapezius Muscles found?

Investing Fascia

28

What is the Innervation of the Sternocleidomastoid and Trapezius Muscles?

CN XI (Spinal Accessory Nerve)

29

Which veins run in the Superficial Cervical Fascia (along with the Platysma Muscles)?

External Jugular Vein
Anterior Jugular Vein

30

What is contained within the Carotid Sheath?

Internal Jugular Veins
Internal Carotid Arteries
CN X
Deep Cervical Lymph Nodes

31

Which Muscles lie within the Pretracheal Fascia?

Strap Muscles

32

What are the Strap Muscles?

Sternohyoid (Sternum to Hyoid)
Omohyoid (Shoulder to Hyoid)
Thyrohyoid (Thyroid Cartilage to Hyoid)
Sternothyroid (Sternum to Thyroid Cartilage)

33

What is the Innervation of the Strap Muscles?

Ansa Cervicalis (Neural Necklace found around the Internal Jugular Veins) from Anterior Rami of C1-C3 and innervates the:
• Sternohyoid Strap Muscle
• Sternothyroid Strap Muscle
• Omohyoid Strap Muscle

Hypoglossal Nerve (CN XII) innervates the Thyrohyoid Muscle.

34

What is the Blood Supply to the Thyroid Gland?

Left and Right Superior Thyroid Arteries pass inferiorly to supply the Thyroid Gland (first branches of the ECA).

Left and Right Inferior Thyroid Arteries from Left and Right Subclavian Arteries.

Some may have a Thyroid Ima Artery which branches off the Common Carotid Arteries, which passes through the Medial Aspect (almost centrally) of the Anterior Neck.

35

What is the Venous Drainage of the Thyroid Gland?

The Superior and Middle Thyroid Veins from the Internal Jugular Veins.

The Inferior Thyroid Veins from the Left Brachiocephalic Vein