Lower Urinary Tract Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lower Urinary Tract Anatomy Deck (41):

What is the False Pelvis?

Part of the Abdominal Cavity which extends from the Iliac Crests to the Pelvic Inlet
Contains abdominal viscera


What is the True Pelvis?

The Pelvic Cavity, extends from the Pelvic Inlet to the Pelvic Floor
Contains pelvic viscera


What is the Pelvic Floor made up of?

The Pelvic Diaphragm i.e. Group of muscles, predominantly the Levator Ani, which make up the pelvic floor


What is the purpose of the Openings in the Pelvic Floor?

Allows the distal parts of the Alimentary, Reproductive and Urinary Tracts to pass into the Perineum


What is the Perineum?

Shallow compartment which extends from the Pelvic Floor to the Skin of the External Genitalia


At what anatomical spot do the Ureters enter the True Pelvis?

Pelvic Rim


What is Angulation?

1/2 Mechanisms which prevent urine reflux in the urinary tract
Ureters change direction and enter the posterior aspect of the bladder infero-medially to prevent backflow


What is the 'Water under the Bridge' in Males and Females?

In Males: Ureter passes inferior to the Vans Deferens

In Females: Ureter passes inferior to the Uterine Tubes and Arteries


In the Female, which arteries are anatomically related to the Ureter?

Common Iliac Artery
Uterine Arteries
Vaginal Arteries
Middle Rectal Artery


In the Male, which arteries are anatomically related to the Ureter?

Common Iliac Artery
Middle Rectal Artery
Prostatic Artery


What are the 3 Orifices of the Bladder?

2 Ureteric Orifices
1 Internal Urethral Orifice


What do the 3 Bladder Orifices form?

Smooth triangular surface on the inside of the bladder wall


Which Muscle forms the bulk of the bladder wall?

Detrusor Muscle


What is the 2nd Mechanism for preventing urine reflux in the urinary tract?

Detrusor muscle has fibres which encircles the Ureteric Orifices which tighten when contraction of the bladder occurs, closing off the orifices, preventing urine backflow


The External Urethral Sphincter Muscle is found in only Males. True or False?

The External Urethral Sphincter Muscle is a skeletal muscle found in both; males and females.


What is the Internal Urethral Sphincter?

A Smooth Muscle found only in Males at the neck of the bladder which contracts on ejaculation to prevent retrograde semen flow into the bladder.


What separates the Bladder from the Uterus in females?

The Utero-Vesicular Pouch


Where is the Bladder situated when empty?

Immediately tucked posterior to the Pubic Bone, near the Pubic Symphysis


Where does the Uterus lie in relation to the bladder?

Superiorly - its weight is borne by the bladder


What is the deepest aspect of the Female Peritoneal Cavity?

Rectouterine Pouch - abnormal fluid will collect here


What lies inferior to the Male Bladder?

Prostate Gland


What is the deepest aspect of the Male Peritoneal Cavity?

Rectovesical Pouch - abnormal fluid will collect here


Which surface of the bladder is covered by Peritoneum?

Superior surface


How can the Bladder extend out of the Pelvis when full?

Its superior surface lies superior to the pubic bone.
It extends superiorly so moves out of the True Pelvis into the False Pelvis


Name the 2 types of Bladder Catheterisation

Urethral Catheterisation (more common)
Suprapubic Catheterisation


What happens in Urethral Catheterisation?

The catheter is inserted directly into the urethra


What happens in Suprapubic Catheterisation?

The catheter is inserted into the Anterior Abdominal Wall, avoiding the Peritoneal Cavity


Why can you not perform Suprapubic Catheterisation on an empty bladder?

You will pierce the Peritoneum.
An filled and therefore, expanded bladder pushes the peritoneum out of the way to allow direct bladder catheterisation


What is the name of the Urethra when it descends through the Prostate Gland?

Prostatic Urethra


What is the name of the Urethra when it descends through the Corpus Spongiosum of the Penis?

Spongy Urethra


Where is Sperm produced?

Seminiferous Tubules of the Testes


Where is Sperm stored?



What forms the Ejaculatory Duct?

The Vans Deferens and the Duct of the Seminal Gland


What are the 2 Layers of the Tunica Vaginalis?

Parietal Layer - in contact with the Scrotum
Visceral Layer - in contact with the Testes


Which gland is palpated in the PR Exam

Prostate Gland
The Peripheral Zone of the Prostate Gland (i.e. The Region of the Prostate Gland where Prostate Cancers tend to develop) is being Palpated.


The Penis is found within the Perineum. True or False?



What does the Root of the Penis attach to?

Ischium, laterally


What are the 3 Erectile Tissue Compartments of the Penis?

Left and Right (2) Corpus Cavernosum, which transmit the Deep Arteries of the Penis

Corpus Spongiosum, which transmits the Spongy Urethra and Expands Distally to form the Glans (Mushroom-Shaped aspect of Penis)


What happens to the 3 Erectile Tissues of the Penis during an erection?

They become engorged with Blood


What is the Blood Supply to the Penis and Scrotum?

The Internal Pudendal Arteries, which come off the Internal Iliac Artery, are deep arteries of the Penis which Supply the Erectile Tissue.

The Scrotum receives a Dual Blood Supply from Arterial Branches, which arise from the Internal and External Iliac Arteries.


What is the Lymphatic Drainage of the Penis and Scrotum?

Lymphatic Drainage of the Scrotum and Penis is Drained to the Superficial Lymph Nodes.

Lymphatic Drainage of the Testes will drain back to the Lumbar Lymph Nodes as their Embryological Site of Origin, prior to Descension is near these Lymph Nodes.