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Flashcards in The Ill Child Deck (22):
1

What is Bronchiolitis?

Acute, Inflammatory Injury of the Bronchioles and is often caused Virally.

Often predisposed by a Cold that spreads into the infant's chest.

2

What is a common cause of bronchiolitis for children <1 years?

RSV

3

List symptoms of Bronchiolitis

Snotty
Low Mood
Struggle with Feeding
Might Need Oxygen
Salivation
Bubbling around Mouth
Distinct Cough
Widespread Fine Crackles throughout Lung Fields

4

What is treatment of Bronchiolitis?

Supportive as it is a virus.
Smaller feeds but more often (Bronchiolitis typically lasts 5 days)

O2 and IV Fluids if child is cyanosed, unable to eat or undergoing respiratory distress.

5

What is Croup/Laryngotracheobronchitis Infection?

Acute, Viral Infection that affects 3 Aspects of the Respiratory Tract:
- Larynx
- Trachea
- Bronchi

6

What is Croup most commonly caused by?

Parainfluenza or in some cases; RSV.

7

What are symptoms of Croup?

Cold
Barking Cough
Stridor due to Narrowing of the Air Column (Trachea and Bronchi)

Child gets Suddenly Worse Overnight

8

What is treatment of Croup?

Steroids i.e. Oral/Nebulised Dexamethasone.

9

What is Epiglottitis?

ENT Emergency, usually caused by Haemophilus Influenzae

10

What is the classic appearance of Epiglottitis?

Salivary drooling as child cannot swallow
Cherry red appearance

11

What is the treatment of Epiglottitis?

Secure the airway then treat with steroids

DO NOT touch their airway PRIOR TO SECURING to prevent complete obstruction.

12

What is the Paediatric Treatment of Asthma?

Salbutamol
Inhaled Steroid, Nightly Dose
LABA

13

What is Meningitis?

infection of the Protective Membranes that Surround the Brain and Spinal Cord (i.e. The Meninges).

Causes can be Bacterial (E.coli or Strep) or Viral.

14

List symptoms of Meningitis

Temperature
Lethargy
Poor Feeding
Low Mood
Look Off-Colour

15

List investigations for Meningitis

Lumbar Puncture
Urine Tests for UTIs
Bloods

16

What is treatment of Meningitis?

Antibiotics i.e. Acyclovir.

17

When a Child presents with a Fulminant Purpura Rash which is Non-Blanching on the Tumbler Test, what is the diagnosis?

Meningococcaemia

Note that the child will be in shock - treat with antibiotics.

18

What are vasovagal episodes/syncope?

Brief, fainting Episodes that occur as a result of your body overreacting to a trigger e.g. Distress, and decreased oxygen supply to the Brain.

Some children can show 'fitting movements' and therefore, look like they are having a seizure.

19

What are Febrile Seizures?

Fits that occur when a child has Fever/Pyrexia. Causes of Febrile Seizures include Meningococcaemia. WE DO NOT TREAT THESE.

20

What are Reflex Anoxic Seizures?

Form of Syncope that are usually triggered by a Sudden Fright/Pain, the most common cause being an Unexpected Bump to the Head.
During the seizure, they are in Asystole and once they come out of the seizure, their heart rhythm and rate returns to normal.

21

What are Breath-Holding Attacks?

Child experiences a sudden shock/pain or is upset/angry/distressed. The child stops breathing taking breaths in, turns pale/grey/cyanosed and then briefly faints.

22

At what Length of Time does a Seizure become 'damaging'?

5 minutes